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Title: STUDIO 2011
Description: WHATEVER

coop - January 3, 2011 11:49 PM (GMT)

coop - January 6, 2011 12:24 PM (GMT)

List of common misconceptions :blink:

coop - January 19, 2011 10:44 AM (GMT)

SAVED In case they get deleted ...
MY notes for use ... TO The Wicked Bitchs er witchs ... at Ubron
Personal Notebook To form some of my ongoing replys to
Nancy Brown and steffs Crazy 11;11 Sacred Clock worship
ACIM AND TeaM crapola at Ubron .

The Gospel of Jesus will Not Fail !

It should be made clear that the midway creatures are not involved in the sordid performances taking place under the general designation of "spiritualism." The midwayers at present on Urantia, all of whom are of honorable standing, are not connected with the phenomena of so-called "mediumship." (The Urantia Book, Archangel of Nebadon, p. 865.6)

Upon death the Thought Adjuster temporarily loses personality, but not identity; the human subject temporarily loses identity, but not personality; on the mansion worlds both reunite in eternal manifestation. Never does a departed Thought Adjuster return to earth as the being of former indwelling; never is personality manifested without the human will; and never does a dis-Adjustered human being after death manifest active identity or in any manner establish communication with the living beings of earth. Such dis-Adjustered souls are wholly and absolutely unconscious during the long or short sleep of death. There can be no exhibition of any sort of personality or ability to engage in communications with other personalities until after completion of survival. Those who go to the mansion worlds are not permitted to send messages back to their loved ones. It is the policy throughout the universes to forbid such communication during the period of a current dispensation. (The Urantia Book, Solitary Messenger of Orvonton, p. 1230.5)

''This is one case where I simply don't believe what the Urantia Book says. Sorry, but much as I love most of the revelation, and grateful as I am for the life-changing information it has given me, I am not a UB fundamentalist. When it states AS FACT something that is disproved by documented cases of mind-to-mind communication, I must go with the evidence and not a book which has passed through human hands. (Saskia Raevouri, TeaM Propagandist, Dematerialization, 1/5/2004, UBRON Discussion List [#52073]) ''

WTF ? :ph43r:

''Communicating with the dead will one day be as commonplace as sending email, and we will laugh at ourselves and our days of ignorance when we believed it to be evil or impossible, or as the UB (Dr. Sadler!) says, 'sordid.' (Saskia Raevouri, TeaM Propagandist, Dematerialization, 1/5/2004, UBRON Discussion List [#52071]) ''

Always, in the absence of revelation or in the failure to accept or grasp it, has mortal man resorted to his futile gesture of metaphysics [or "sordid performances" of spiritualism and mediumship], that being the only human substitute for the revelation of truth or for the mota of morontia personality. (The Urantia Book, Melchizedek of Nebadon, p. 1139)

p 158.8.1

but whosoever causes one of these little ones to stumble, it would be better for him if a millstone were hanged about his neck and he were cast into the sea. If the things you do with your hands, or the things you see with your eyes give offense in the progress of the kingdom, sacrifice these cherished idols, for it is better to enter the kingdom minus many of the beloved things of life rather than to cling to these idols and find yourself shut out of the kingdom. But most of all, see that you despise not one of these little ones, for their angels do always behold the faces of the heavenly hosts.”

Primitive religious beliefs of magic and numerology ...
A devotee of magic will vividly remember one positive chance result in the practice of his magic formulas, while he nonchalantly forgets a score of negative results, out-and-out failures.

P.37 - §3
Undiluted evil, complete error, willful sin, and unmitigated iniquity are inherently and automatically suicidal.

Nancy Browns Sacred Clock worship and

Primitive religious beliefs of magic and numerology ...

1. Nancy Brown. 11:11. 2007 Feb 21.
Notes: Message: 94604
From: Nancy Brown
Subject: 11:11
Date: Wed, Feb 21, 2007, 1:33 PM
Topic: General

Hello Robert and all following along with another fascinating topic -

Once again I have gone into the archive to retrieve something that I wrote about previously. The subject of 11:11 came up a number of years ago - and it just seems kind of redundant for me to re-type another post that has to do with the same idea. Since I shared my experiences with 11:11 previously, it's just easier to cut and paste.
Also, it's been about 25 years now since my first experience with this phenomenon.

And, there was another surge of triple and quadruple numbers appearing in my life a few years ago. Just as intense as when it first started occuring in the early 80's. Perhaps I'll see if I can find that info and add to it later. Now I'm wondering if it's a kind of contact by individual, secondary midwayers (since they're numbered).

Nancy Brown

Archive 11:11
Author: Nancy Brown
Date: Tuesday, December 18, 2001
MessageID: 23613
Subject: 11:11
Topic: Purported Celestials

About twenty years ago, I began to have the experience of seeing 11:11 wherever I went and wherever I was. This phenomenon went on constantly for over a year - until one night, as I was preparing to retire, I glanced at my clock and saw it was exactly 11:11 once again.

At that point I had reached saturation. I sat up in bed, said outloud "okay, the time has come for me to understand what's happening here" and grabbed my Urantia Book and flipped open to page 865 and read:

"The 1,111 loyal secondary midwayers are engaged in important missions on earth. As compared to their primary associates, they are decidedly material. They exist just outside the range of mortal vision and possess sufficient latitude of adaptation to make, at will, physical contact with what humans call "material things." These unique creatures have certain definite powers over things of time and space, not excepting the beasts of the realm.

Many of the more literal phenomenon ascribed to angels have been peformed by the secondary midway creatures."

Now, in my mind, this was beyond an extraordinary "coincidence".

Further, once I obtained this information, the phenomenon of seeing this number everywhere, while not stopped, slowed way down.

For years I thought I was an isolated individual who had this experience. I was wrong. It is absolutely amazing to me how many people have this experience. It's almost common. Most of these people do not know of midway creatures - yet, when this information is shared with me, it's a perfect sequey into talking about the book, if nothing else.
Could there be a definite purpose for this common phenomena?

Have we as a planet reached the state of existence where our "cousins" can be acknowledged and perhaps worked with on a more "real" basis?

Has anyone here considered the fact that George Banard knew of the midwayers years before he ever heard of the Urantia Book? Is he just one individual, of many, who has been contacted by the Midwayers - and actually listened? Who responded to and inter-acted with their energy?

Considering the state of world events, the emerging spritual renaissance, the fact that I believe we are jumping into a whole new epoch and that our circuits are coming back on - why wouldn't these dear ones be more inclined to work with activated humans who have given their will to God? Or with humans who are just willing to work with them?
Why do some insist on keeping themselves and others in the dark ages? How can one read the Urantia Book and deny possibilities that one knows exist just because they haven't experienced it in their own life? If something has not occured in your life of this calibre, it does not mean that it's not possible for another.

I believe George is working with the midwayers. You do not have to believe this is true. At the same time - why display such levels of stubborn ignorance and attempt to make your resistence a virtue? It is this closed-minded attitude that probably precludes one from ever having these experiences. Why are some so fearful of of the unknown and not experienced - to the point of such ridicule? How can one prove something is "untrue" any more than someone, unless they've experienced it themselves, can prove something true?

The Midwayers exist. They are our cousins. The secondary midwayers are close to us in material form. They are just outside the average person's ability to "see". For those who have spiritized themselves through personal choices, or have been blessed with a mind endowed with an ability to perceive higher energies, why not focus on the message rather than the messagenger? Or if on the messenger - then why not in a way that might help to bring these experiences into your life?

We are trying to evolve here. We are ready to jump into something new and wonderful. How can even Urantia Book readers deny this? How can so many hang on to their inabilities instead of fine tuning the ability to believe without seeing, hope when all seems lost, and stop resisting and learn cooperation for bringing in the new age with the faithful midwayers who work so tirelessly for our upliftment?

Twenty years ago I came to realize that we could work in coordination with these beings. George is one who has actually done it.

Has anyone else experienced the number 1111 in a similar manner?

Message: 94605
From: Nancy Brown
Subject: 11:11
Date: Wed, Feb 21, 2007, 1:46 PM
Topic: General

I just found a little more information on 11:11 which mentions the other sequences I've experienced, too.

In fact, for the past number of nights I've been waking up again at exactly 4:44. Actually, that happens all of the time!

Anyway, here's another one of my posts from the archives.

Nancy Brown PS - Somewhere I wrote about the most unusual experience I've had concering these numbers. One night I went to bed at 11:11 - then woke-up at exactly 12:12, 1:11, 2:22, 3:33, 4:44 and 5:55 - and then fell right back to sleep! (Not a minute before nor a minute after)!

Archive 11:11 Author: Nancy Brown Date: Friday, July 8, 2005 MessageID: 72711 Subject: 11:11 Topic: General

Hi Mary Jane -

I have experienced the same phenomenon for the past five or so years - although the 11:11 number began in the early 1980's for me. It abated when, after about a year, I finally just asked outloud in my room one night before bed - "what does 11:11 mean"? I grabbed my Urantia Book and opened it to the page that talks about the 1,111 remaining faithful midwayers! At that point in time, I had only been reading the Urantia Book for a few years - so it was not something I associated with the Ubook.

I surmized that this experience has something to do with Midwayers.

I have also come to realize that this is a world-wide phenomenon.

For the last five years I have also awakened at exactly and especially - 3:33 and 4:44 - although 1:11, 2:22 and 5:55 happen, too.

I have even tried setting my digitial clock forward or backward - but it doesn't matter. It's never a second before or a second after. I wake-up see the numbers and go right back to sleep. It doesn't happen all the time - but it does happen a lot during specific times.

The only thing I can figure out is that it's a trigger, perhaps, for something encoded in our consciousness to be awakened or activated with certain achievments or willingness to serve - or something along this line.

It's too specific and exact and repetitive to be a coincidence. And, it doesn't just occur with digital clocks.

There seem to be others who are experiencing this, too.

Could I ask you some questions?

What are your ideas concerning the meaning of "service" or serving a higher good? How has this taken shape in your life?

What are your ideas about free-will choice; concecration of your will to God's will, and so forth? Are you more right-brained or left- brained oriented? Does intuition play a significant role in your life? I mean, have you learned to fully trust your intuitive knowing? And, do you follow your intution to a greater rather than lesser degree?

I am interested in knowing both why and how this rather odd phenomenon is taking shape on this planet.

It doesn't just happen with other Urantia Book readers - but it still is uncommon enough to for me to appreciate finding another UB reader who is having this experience, too.
To me - it somehow seems conncected, as I said above, to the Midwayers. How - I don't know. Why - I don't know - but because we have the Urantia Book and know this number is connected to them (unlike those who do not know of these teachings) - perhaps it is worth examining what this link might be about?

Are there any others on this forum who have encountered these numbers in an on-going manner?

Despite how some others may feel about this (those who dis-believe anything along these lines) - it still is intriguing for those of us who experience it.

Thanks for any help or imput towards understanding.

Blessings -

Nancy B.

Mary Jane Wrote:

I have been seeing 11:11 2:22, 4:44 etc on my clock for a long time now. It would be impossible to see these numbers so frequently if something about it isn't true. I don't know what to do about it so I just thank God. I wonder what they want from me.


666666666666666666666666666 :ph43r:

[3] George Barnard is the founder/leader of TeaM's "11:11 Progress Group" that is the primary source of TeaM's channeled material for the "11:11 phenomena." One of TeaM's claims is that midwayers are "saying hello" using VCRs and clocks to "play with numbers" to communicate with mortals through "time prompts." Ironically, this belief is an example of what the authors of The Urantia Book characterize as a primitive religious belief, i.e. of magic and numerology, where the "devotee of magic will vividly remember one positive chance result in the practice magic formulas, while he nonchalantly forgets a score of negative results, out-and-out failures (85:4.4)." Paula Thompson, along with her co-host on Cosmic Citizen—Christilyn Biek Larson—have devoted three shows to TeaM's "11:11 phenomena," Paula and Christilyn claim TeaM's "11:11 phenomena" is the work of the midwayers discussed in The Urantia Book.

Join Paula and Christilyn today as we discuss Angels, Unseen Helpers and and the 1111 mystery. (Paula Thompson and Christilyn Biek Larson, Hosts of Cosmic Citizen, The 1111 Wake Up Calls, 7/31/2010, Blogtalkradio)

George Mathieu Barnard is Dutch by birth, French by descend, and Australian by choice. Since childhood, he has been aware of the “1,111 Spirit Guardians” who have always guided and protected him. In his career as an industrialist, and later as a therapist, these Spirit Friends assisted him in emergencies – from saving lives to rescuing companies from disaster. Join us for another perspective on the worldwide phenomenon of 11:11 - Notably the Guru of the online discussion groups, George is an open and willing participant in the Cosmic Citizen guest club. We hope you will join us for what will be, at the very least, fascinating and funny stories featuring George's lifetime involvement with the "Guardian Spirits of The Midway Realms" (Paula Thompson and Christilyn Biek Larson, Hosts of Cosmic Citizen, More on 11:11 - The Cosmic Wakeup Call, 8/7/2010, Blogtalkradio)

Are you getting the 11:11 prompts? Are you inexplicably seeing 11:11 on the clock when you look at it, or derivatives of 11 like, 5:55, 4:44, 3:33, 2:22, etc.? People all over the world are noticing this phenomenon. This week's Cosmic Citizen will provide some astonishing detail into the nature and function of the 1111 Guardians of the Midway Realms. Many of these being are listed as authors of The Urantia Book. So what do they want? Why are they and the other Angelic orders trying to get our attention? Tune in and find out. (Paula Thompson and Christilyn Biek Larson, Hosts of Cosmic Citizen, More on the 11:11 Cosmic Wake-Up Calls, 8/14/2010, Blogtalkradio)

Typical of the channeled material from the "11:11 Progress Group" is a purported midwayer speaking of disordered dissolutions. (See T.2715:404, T.1903:579, T.964:19, T.2671:12, T.2706:6, T.3106:16, T.4342:27) These so-called "entities," "dark spirits," and/or "stupid drifters" that become "attachments" to living mortal "hosts" can be "diagnosed" and "removed" by a "specialist" for a beginning fee of $150 U.S. (See Remote Depossession) In one case George channeled (T/Red) a "lost soul" or "wanderer" that washed up on the beach that he spotted from a fishing pier. This "tormented soul," he informs his list, was several hundred years old, having experienced death on this planet, but for some reason not joining the ranks of the sleeping survivors nor going to the mansion worlds to be repersonalized.

Regarding other pseudoscientific and superstitious teachings that are commonly found within TeaM's teachings, the following is a small sampling: Bermuda triangle is a time-space doorway used by the Watchers (T.2876:14; T.2878:62), reincarnation is true and lost wandering souls (T.2876:31; T.2876:58; T.2878:215; T.2879:101), there is no judgment day (T.2879:125), animals have souls (T.2879:248), animals reincarnate (T.2914:91), pyramids are of supernatural origin (T.2879:300), ghosts are real (T.2911:177), poltergeists are real and “spirits” enter homes and unintentionally cause harm (T.2917:8), spirits are guarding dead men’s bones (T.2951:7), personality is not changeless (T.2877:256), Jesus is not “the way, the truth, and the life” (T.2902:61), UFOs are rogue Watchers (T.2903:13), soothsaying and fortune-telling and crystal reading are real (T.2902:29), lost souls inhabit buildings and cause mischief (T.2905:242), living hold dead to “earth plane” (T.2879:12), and soul memory (T.2877:280), AIDS “mainly affects” those who don’t obey ten commandments (T.2906:140) and who engage in sodomy (T.2968:483). From TeaM’s “celestial teachers” claiming voodoo/astrology (see T.773:27) are valid spiritual practices to the claim that human emotions cause earthquakes; from the hundredth monkey syndrome to crop circles, TeaM espouses a plethora of pseudoscientific ignorant and enslaving superstitions as part of their so-called “new revelation”; including such ludicrous beliefs as Thought Adjusters recommending the practice of urine drinking (TeaM channeler Algimantas Jokubenas, T.3892:25), women's own self-centeredness cause of breast cancer, “magnetic [thought] forces” guarding dead men’s bones (T.2951:7) and waiting around to act as “specialists” for every occasion, from medical advice (which can be potentially dangerous) to fixing washing machines and remodeling homes (T.736:35).

coop - January 22, 2011 11:01 PM (GMT)

gProbably the only evangelical Christian grindhouse horror movie ever made about life in Commie Americah

THIS Is some sick and Twisted shit from the past,
Religions errors and propaganda is Not much different Today !
Watch in full screen , if you can stomach it .

gProbably the only evangelical Christian grindhouse horror movie ever made about life in Commie AmericahThatfs what IO9 called If Footmen Tire You, What Will Horses Do?, a bizarre, unintentionally hilarious, weird film from the 70Œs.

This 1971 film was directed by exploitation film director Ron Ormond. Prior to surviving a plane crash in 1968, Ormondfs oeuvre consisted mostly of films like the science fiction sleazefests The Monster and the Stripper and Mesa of Lost Women.
If Footmen Tire You, What Will Horses Do?, which is based on the teachings of the fire-and-brimstone Reverend Estus Pirkle, depicts a United States under the thrall of Communist overlords. This is no flight of fancy, mind you. The film claims that if miniskirts, rock-and-roll, premarital sex, and other forms of secular fun are not replaced by nationwide piousness, the United States will be taken over by a Red fifth column by 1973. Once the Commies are in power, theyfll brainwash us with uncreative chants and uncomfortable benches.

coop - January 30, 2011 10:30 PM (GMT)

I Got Suspended at Ubong Today by Holly
For my replies to Steff , Nancy Brown and Jonathan in regards to the
So calld 11: 11 Bullshit , Booo hooo . :y

Before I Got a chance to post this ... Below ...

Its a waste of time there with those Douchbags anyway .

May post some other stuff later of what i said ... there . Here .

11:11 Progress Group

"Remote Depossession" and Removing Attached Entities


Geoff: Site Admin
Joined: 14 Nov 2003
Posts: 1206
Location: Sydney, NSW Australia
Posted: Sun Aug 08, 2004 10:44 pm Post
Subject: Removing Attached Entities

Hi Patto,


The invervals for this are becomoing more frequent. I am here because I feel that this is a spiritual problem. I feel that the message they are conveying to me I can't comprehend. When I earnestly communicate I feel this force blocking a response. I don't know how but I feel a dark force around me. Im good natured at the same time. The two forces come together and create this grey feeling. This has spread to my life. In darkness i'm comforted by light, in light I hide in darkness.

I am very sorry to hear of your problem. Only you can assess how real or dark this is. I hope that what I am about to say is wrong, and most of all I hope that I do not scare you further. But since you have asked us for help, I can only respond as I know.

I have a suspicion what the problem is, but it is only a suspicion. Psychic people are very suceptible to entities within their aura. Once within the aura, they can cause all sorts of effects, because that entity will try to control you. You might ask how this happens? Well, typically when you are unconscious, or have an operation it can happen. It can also be "invited" in by people who experiment with spirit communication, and have neither protected themselves, nor have sufficient spiritual power to withstand the attack.

How can you get rid of this? Well two ways, the quick and the slow. The slow can take quite some time, depending on you. The quick may not be permanent.

The quick way is described on this web page Removing attached entities

[Removing dark spirit attachments.

This page describes the technique pioneered by Dr. Irene Hickman, and described in her book: "Remote Depossession". I trust that my including here a chapter from this book will not upset the existing copyright holder. That used to be Irene Hickman, but sadly she recently passed over. I have asked her daughter, Shelley Giles, and it is her opinion that her mother would be delighted that her work is being promoted.

I would recommend this book to anyone who is interested in the phenomenon of spirit attachment. The approach that Irene has evolved is so sensible, and methodical, that anyone could follow it. Having said that, this work is not for the faint of heart, but Irene's approach is orders of magnitude better than the traditional casting out of demons practised by many churches. The primary advantage in Irene's approach, is that she "converts" all the entities to the light, and thus they are very unlikely to bother anyone else again. One might say, certain, but I guess a caveat is always smart. But simply ordering spirits to leave, means that they will attach to someone else.

As this chapter is simply taken from the middle of the book, I should explain the method. Irene, as a trained professional hypnotherapist, hypnotises an assistant. This assistant, called a subject below, becomes effectively a medium, and is able to be used by Irene, to interact with the patient and any attached spirits. The patient may not be aware that this procedure is being conducted, but the patient's higher consciousness is always asked for permission. The beauty of this approach is that reports of improvement are quite independent, as the patient frequently has no idea what has transpired. It is also totally non-invasive, unlike some reports of traditional church procedures.


You can find practitioners on the web, who for US$150 or so will carry out a remote analysis. 1 The slow way is via prayer, and meditation, and asking God to bring the Light into your life, and clear away the darkness. As I say i don't know how quick that will be. I once got an attachment, and it took two hours of prayer to get rid of it. But that is quick. I was thinking months of prayer maybe. I do also think that if we had a session, George and I, who are both in Australia, with you, just maybe we could sort this out. But you are in Melbourne, which is some way away. We could all decide to send you our healing energies, and that would not hurt, but I am uncertain whether it would be sufficient. I also know a lady in Melbourne who might be able to help. She is a spiritual healer, but I don't know whether she has experience of this. But I could ask.

Much love,



[1] Within TeaM there has been much debate about the issue of "professional channeling" (i.e., channeling for a fee), which includes such services as "remote depossessions" etc. When this was posted on the 11:11 Progress Group's discussion list, it raised questions on the Teaching Mission discussion list TML. That in turn lead to a acrimonious exchange between the two channeling groups within the Teaching Mission. Some TeaMers wanted to exclude the 11:11 Progress Group, while others argued they were part of TeaM.

From: "Geoff New Birth"
To: "judy ausma nyland" [Forwarded to TML]
Sent: Friday, November 26, 2004 4:50 PM
Subject: Re: Re: [tml] Oh dear, Jim.

Dear folks,

I gather that you have been having a heated discussion here about some things posted on the 11:11 message board that George and I set up. In particular, some of the issues you raised are matters that I described. It does sadden me to discover that what purports to be a group of Spiritually motivated folk, seeking to follow the Master, find it within themselves to denigrate and ridicule another, particularly since we are talking about matters that it seems these same folk know nothing about.

In about 1942 one Harold Sherman commented about the papers that were to be published as the Urantia Book. His comment was to the effect that no where was there any discussion of those matters that hundreds of thousands of folks know to be true, what might be called psychic phenomena. That situation pertains today, and sadly, just because the Urantia Book does not include these topics, it seems some of you feel at liberty to decide that not only do you know better, but that you are able, in a true spirit of fraternity, to ridicule those that do.

It is this very same closemindedness that is the reason you folk cannot expand to take in anyone who either has not yet "adopted" the UBook, or perhaps has a range of personal experiences that fall outside that book.

For those that are truly interested in the phenomenon I call dark spirits, I suggest you read a book now out of print, but which book was in print for some 50 years. I refer to "30 Years among the Dead". As it happens, I have recently created a pdf of this book, although it is about 1.5Mb, and I have offered it freely on my web site. You can download it from

This is certainly not the only such book covering such phenomonon.

And yes you should, if you dare, ask your teachers about this. These are not deamons. They are sad misguided dogmatic mortals who are now dead, but mostly refuse to accept that.

Much love,

Jim Cleveland responded:
From: Jim Cleveland
Sent: Saturday, November 27, 2004 12:40 AM
Cc: Geoff New Birth
Subject: Re: Fw: Re: [tml] Oh dear, Jim.

To reiterate one of my earlier posts, Geoff can believe what he wishes and I still count him as a friend. I have enjoyed the Living Love Fellowship and published some of the Padget papers with Jesus and Judas as far back as '96.

He mistakes us for fundamentalist UBers, although some of us do believe in the validity of the papers. He should know that the TeaM is not generally accepted by UB fundamentalists either.

In fact, Geoff believes that Sadler's bias against mediumship polluted the UB, including the Jesus papers. He is entitled to this belief as well. He apparently has another base on belief in an out of print book on lost souls or such.

UB is not my sole reference and I work with people who believe all kinds of things. But I don't necessarily believe them.

My only issue was with George's trashy posts about TeaM people. This is being dealt with.

Love and light, jim
Marshall responded:
From: Warren Smith
Sent: Thursday, November 25, 2004 11:08 PM
Subject: Re: Re: [tml] Oh dear, Jim.

No, Judy, this is not what I would personally categorize as inflammatory response. It was offered up to support some of Jim Cleveland's keen observations and associated allegations on TML, that were being denied and/or skirted, by George, as he attempted to utilize projection and name-calling in an effort to divert the issue at hand, instead, choosing to assault Jim and TeaM. To me, the inflammatory response is only in YOUR insinuation. This so-called "nonsense" comes right off the 1111 Progress Message Board. In fact, I joined in the thread after a diagnosis (referred to in my post, below) was offered by "Team 1111" that I felt might be personally damaging to the young, confused, seeking soul who began the thread. To me, this diagnosis is clearly not offered in the spirit of brotherly love, and reeks of the fear-tactics I refer to in my post, below, effectively utilized by organized religions, governments, big corporation,... etc., for ages. (By the way, Judy, if for some reason, George later disagreed with or had changed his mind on the offered diagnosis and associated "nonsense", he never expressed such by refuting it on the 1111 Message Board)

How much information, Judy, do you really desire to wade through? You may begin by going to the 1111 Message Board, to the "Miscellaneous" category and going to the thread initially posted by a young fellow and new 1111 subscriber named Patto, on 08/08/04, entitled "Starting a Journey". If for some reason it is no longer there (or edited), I'll send you a copy of the thread. Of course, there is more on this topic of "dark spirits" (much more) and their "attachments" to living mortal "hosts" on the 1111 Message Board (at least there was before I was 86ed without notice at the end of September, only being told by George that such a move was decided upon by the midwayers, as he was only carrying out orders, thus washing his innocent hands of the whole affair. I can provide you with this communication, and others, upon request), against their freewill, if you desire to diligently navigate this Message Board. George even offers up a transmission where he T/Rs a "lost soul", "wanderer", or "entity" (I believe he calls it), in this case one that washed up on the beach that he spotted from a fishing pier.

This wandering, "tormented soul", or "entity", was several hundred years old, having experienced death on this planet, but for some reason not joining the ranks of the sleeping survivors, nor going to the mansion worlds to be repersonalized; a real fluke/snafu in the scheme of things, as I understood it. This was posted under "Inspired Messages" and also, at least once, being referred to (with a link to this transmission) in a thread under the "Miscellaneous" category, on the 1111 Message Board.

This should provide you with an interesting and enlightening reading experience, Judy. I'll be interested in hearing your thoughts/feedback on this "revealing" issue. Please don't hesitate to share with all on TML, just as you have shared your post here that I am responding to. Again, if for some reason you can't find this information on the 1111 Message Board, let me know and I'll forward the thread on.

Hoping this is helpful,

From: Warren Smith
Sent: Tuesday, November 23, 2004 4:26 AM
Subject: Re: [tml] Oh dear, Jim. [$150 U.S. for exorcism; archives: #2715, #2723 ]

Hello Jim,

When backed into a dark corner, what other (fear-based) reaction would you expect from Bro George than his usual and customary "projection act". Any "light" is unwelcomed. Appears to be his standard operating procedure/modus operandi. At least you can feel blessed that no malicious rumors about you or your integrity have been circulated (yet).

Another thought to consider (get prepared to REALLY laugh): Maybe it's just mere case of possession (curable, by the way) by one or more of those "dark spirits" (lost souls that have died on this planet, who for some reason did not become members of the ranks of sleeeping survivors, nor have they been resurrected on the mansion worlds. Evidently "stupid" drifters that need a living mortal "host" to "possess", ...against their freewill, by the way. Some individuals have been known to "host" a dozen or more of these "dark spirits". See more on the 1111 site... hosted by none other than our "Cyberspace Cymboyton and Son", aka the royal "Guru Duo") they promote on the so-called 1111 Progress Message Board. Bro George and ad-min Geoff Cutler have even been known to make such shocking diagnosises to new, confused, truth-seekers going through obvious personal turmoil, going out of their way to graciously recommend a "specialist" in Sydney, that beginning at $150 U.S., one can entertain hope that these "dark spiritis" can be "removed" (wonder if they have a payment plan). Of course, anyone who dares to dispute such rubbish on their site is unilaterally "ousted without notice" (as I was in September after I offered up UB quotes and teacher lessons invalidating these fear-based outrageous claims. And get this.... according to Geoff, these claims of "dark spirits" possessing mortal "hosts" against their freewill were validated by MICHAEL himself. Period!). Not to worry though friends, as such tactics are not new, in fact they have been exceedingly effective for ages and frequently utilized by organized religions, governments, big corporations,.... etc. Just come up with a problem that does not exist, give it a name, find a few hired "specialists" ("prostitutes") to support your claims, spread the word (advertise it) then come in as the self-proclaimed savior with the "solution" or "cure" (for a problem that never really existed). Used by many who seek power, money, etc.... (always operating from the ego/animal mind).

Jim, I appreciate your courage and fearlessness in your attempts to pursue and expose truth (oftentimes a very unpopular assignment) and wherever this truth may lead you. You have certainly been an inspiration to me.

Just a small glimpse (tip of the iceberg), for my deserving friends on TML,

From: Jim Cleveland
Sent: Tuesday, November 23, 2004 1:23 PM
Subject: Re: Re: [tml] Oh dear, Jim.

Hi Warren,

Thanks for this somewhat startling information. Since George can't find the doorknob, or the light apparently, perhaps he is still here and will reply. Perhaps the dark spirits will help alleviate his frequently announced money shortages. Maybe a self-exorcism first to see if his extraction plan really works, nothing like an acid test.

just love from here ..... jim

[2] Following is the brief exchange on the 11:11 list:

Joined: 24 Apr 2004
Posts: 206
Location: SLC, Utah USA
PostPosted: Mon Aug 09, 2004 2:06 am

Hi Patto,

A pleasure to hear from you, and welcome to 11:11.

I can somewhat relate to your dilemna, as a friend of mine was having similar experiences such as you are describing, a couple of years ago. I do not feel there is any need for alarm, for indeed you are in control of your destiny. This, in fact, could be an excellent opportunity for you to realize great new spiritual growth, as you exercise your spiritual muscles, and reach into new planes of operation. This is what my old friend decided to do; and with great success, I might add. Rest assured, brother, you have all you need, within; you lack nothing.

The best advice I can offer you is what I offered my friend, and that is to begin the practice of "stillness" a couple of times daily. You only need to spend a total of about 30 minutes a day as you start out. It may be difficult at first, but it will change your life forever and you will, in all liklihood, choose to continue it for the rest of your life. There are a number of celestial teacher transcripts in the 11:11 Archives that stress the tremendous importance of the "stillness" practice. I also highly recommend Donna D'Ingillo's website (, as there are explicit and easy to follow instuctions on how to incorporate this critical practice into your daily life. You should find it to be highly enlightening.

Meanwhile, to calm any immediate concerns you may be facing, I've included a few relative excerpts, below, from the Urantia Book.

Again, welcome to 11:11. It is no mere coincidence that you are here.

I look forward to your new peace of mind and to more contibutions from you, here on 11:11.

With peace and love bro,

Urantia Book, Paper 53.8 is an effective armor against sin and iniquity. It is true: "He who is born of God keeps himself, and the wicked one touches him not."

In general, when weak and dissolute mortals are supposed to be under the influence of devils and demons, they are merely being dominated by their own inherent and debased tendencies, being led away by their own natural propensities. The devil has been given a great deal of credit for evil which does not belong to him.

Urantia Book, Paper 77.7

But just because Michael's (Jesus') bestowal has forever liberated all human minds on Urantia from the possibility of demoniacal possession, do not imagine that such was not a reality in former ages.

...Regardless of the presence of the Thought Adjusters (the Spirit of our Paradise Creator Father that indwells you), the pouring out of the Spirit of Truth (many know it as the Holy Spirit) upon all flesh forever made it impossible for disloyal spirits of any sort or description ever again to invade even the most feeble of human minds. Since the day of Pentecost there never again can be such a thing as demoniacal possession.

Site Admin
Joined: 14 Nov 2003
Posts: 1206
Location: Sydney, NSW Australia
PostPosted: Mon Aug 09, 2004 3:15 am

Dear Marshall,

I know that is what the Ubook says, but I am afraid I don't agree with it.

There is just far too much evidence to the contrary. Current evidence, not old stuff. Now I am not saying I believe in devils, because I don't. I did not use those words, your quotes did.

If you are really interested in the subject, read "Remote Depossession" written about ten years ago, or "30 Years among the dead" written 90 years ago. I did not define entities, because I did not want to alarm anyone.

Sadly that has now happened. The entities I am talking about are mostly departed mortals of no spiritual development. There are other entities types too, but they are certainly not devils.

While I think the Urantia book is a good book, it is extremely thin on the subject of earth bound spirits, indeed on the whole subject of what really happens to undeveloped spirits, what I call dark spirits. I suspect that may be because it had too much material already. It can't have the last word on all subjects. Equally, this topic is getting too close to topics Sadler wanted nothing to do with.

Much love,

coop - February 2, 2011 01:55 PM (GMT)


An early spring it will be! :rolleyes:

The Prognosticator of Prognosticators, Punxsutawney Phil, once again appeared at sunrise at Gobbler's Knob in the Pennsylvania Wilds to make his annual prediction.

Phil surveyed his surroundings and found no shadow, so an early spring it will be!

coop - February 6, 2011 04:22 AM (GMT)

coop - February 9, 2011 12:59 PM (GMT)

coop - February 21, 2011 01:15 AM (GMT)

Interesting to see if the writings are sometime decoded eh .
Some of the Drawings seem to be of a City or Fort
in a Concentric Circle Design , ...
Maybe Daligastia Drew em :blink:

66.3.3 The headquarters of the Planetary Prince on Urantia was typical of such stations on a young and developing sphere. The nucleus of the Prince’s settlement was a very simple but beautiful city, enclosed within a wall forty feet high. This world center of culture was named Dalamatia in honor of daligastia.

user posted image

coop - February 28, 2011 06:05 AM (GMT)


coop - March 2, 2011 03:25 AM (GMT)


coop - March 8, 2011 04:29 AM (GMT)


P.637 - §1 God is unity. Deity is universally co-ordinated. The universe of universes is one vast integrated mechanism which is absolutely controlled by one infinite mind. The physical, intellectual, and spiritual domains of universal creation are divinely correlated. The perfect and imperfect are truly interrelated, and therefore may the finite evolutionary creature ascend to Paradise in obedience to the Universal Father's mandate: "Be you perfect, even as I am perfect."

P.637 - §2 The diverse levels of creation are all unified in the plans and administration of the Architects of the Master Universe. To the circumscribed minds of time-space mortals the universe may present many problems and situations which apparently portray disharmony and indicate absence of effective co-ordination; but those of us who are able to observe wider stretches of universal phenomena, and who are more experienced in this art of detecting the basic unity which underlies creative diversity and of discovering the divine oneness which overspreads all this functioning of plurality, better perceive the divine and single purpose exhibited in all these manifold manifestations of universal creative energy.

coop - March 8, 2011 12:05 PM (GMT)

about My Questions About ... Perfection .

I Found more answers I Was lookin for
IN THE Foreword .

0:1.11 The finite level of reality is characterized by creature life and time-space limitations. Finite realities may not have endings, but they always have beginnings—they are created. The Deity level of Supremacy may be conceived as a function in relation to finite existences.

0:1.12 The absonite level of reality is characterized by things and beings without beginnings or endings and by the transcendence of time and space. Absoniters are not created; they are eventuated—they simply are. The Deity level of Ultimacy connotes a function in relation to absonite realities. No matter in what part of the master universe, whenever time and space are transcended, such an absonite phenomenon is an act of the Ultimacy of Deity.

0:1.13 The absolute level is beginningless, endless, timeless, and spaceless. For example: On Paradise, time and space are nonexistent; the time-space status of Paradise is absolute. This level is Trinity attained, existentially, by the Paradise Deities, but this third level of unifying Deity expression is not fully unified experientially. Whenever, wherever, and however the absolute level of Deity functions, Paradise-absolute values and meanings are manifest.

0:1.14 Deity may be existential, as in the Eternal Son; experiential, as in the Supreme Being; associative, as in God the Sevenfold; undivided, as in the Paradise Trinity.

0:1.15 Deity is the source of all that which is divine. Deity is characteristically and invariably divine, but all that which is divine is not necessarily Deity, though it will be co-ordinated with Deity and will tend towards some phase of unity with Deity—spiritual, mindal, or personal.

0:1.16 DIVINITY is the characteristic, unifying, and co-ordinating quality of Deity.

0:1.17 Divinity is creature comprehensible as truth, beauty, and goodness; correlated in personality as love, mercy, and ministry; disclosed on impersonal levels as justice, power, and sovereignty.

0:1.18 Divinity may be perfect—complete—as on existential and creator levels of Paradise perfection; it may be imperfect, as on experiential and creature levels of time-space evolution, or it may be relative, neither perfect nor imperfect, as on certain Havona levels of existential-experiential relationships.

0:1.19 When we attempt to conceive of perfection in all phases and forms of relativity, we encounter seven conceivable types:
1. Absolute perfection in all aspects .
2. Absolute perfection in some phases and relative perfection in all other aspects.
3. Absolute, relative, and imperfect aspects in varied association.
4. Absolute perfection in some respects, imperfection in all others.
5. Absolute perfection in no direction, relative perfection in all manifestations.
6. Absolute perfection in no phase, relative in some, imperfect in others.
7. Absolute perfection in no attribute, imperfection in all.

coop - March 10, 2011 02:04 AM (GMT)


195.7.20 Science lives by the mathematics of the mind; MUSIC expresses the tempo of the emotions. Religion is the spiritual rhythm of the soul in time-space harmony with the higher and eternal melody measurements of Infinity. Religious experience is something in human life which is truly supermathematical.

12.9.2 Love is the secret of beneficial association between personalities. You cannot really know a person as the result of a single contact. You cannot appreciatingly know MUSIC through mathematical deduction, even though MUSIC is a form of mathematical rhythm. The number assigned to a telephone subscriber does not in any manner identify the personality of that subscriber or signify anything concerning his character.

32.5.1 5. THE ETERNAL AND DIVINE PURPOSE There is a great and glorious purpose in the march of the universes through space. All of your mortal struggling is not in vain. We are all part of an immense plan, a gigantic enterprise, and it is the vastness of the undertaking that renders it impossible to see very much of it at any one time and during any one life. We are all a part of an eternal project which the Gods are supervising and outworking. The whole marvelous and universal mechanism moves on majestically through space to the MUSIC of the meter of the infinite thought and the eternal purpose of the First Great Source and Center.

38.2.1 2. ANGELIC NATURES Angels do not have material bodies, but they are definite and discrete beings; they are of spirit nature and origin. Though invisible to mortals, they perceive you as you are in the flesh without the aid of transformers or translators; they intellectually understand the mode of mortal life, and they share all of man’s nonsensuous emotions and sentiments. They appreciate and greatly enjoy your efforts in MUSIC, art, and real humor. They are fully cognizant of your moral struggles and spiritual difficulties. They love human beings, and only good can result from your efforts to understand and love them.

44.1.2 The celestial MUSICians are occupied with the production of celestial harmony by the manipulation of the following spirit forces: 1. Spiritual sound— spirit current interruptions. 2. Spiritual light— the control and intensification of the light of the morontia and spiritual realms. 3. Energy impingements— melody produced by the skillful management of the morontia and spirit energies. 4. Color symphonies— melody of morontia color tones; this ranks among the highest accomplishments of the celestial MUSICians. 5. Harmony of associated spirits— the very arrangement and association of different orders of morontia and spirit beings produce majestic melodies. 6. Melody of thought— the thinking of spiritual thoughts can be so perfected as to burst forth in the melodies of Havona. 7. The MUSIC of space— by proper attunement the melodies of other spheres can be picked up on the universe broadcast circuits.

user posted image

coop - March 20, 2011 12:32 AM (GMT)

coop - March 21, 2011 02:29 AM (GMT)

108.4.4 When a world is isolated by rebellion, when a planet is cut off from all outside encircuited communication, as was Urantia after the Caligastia upheaval, aside from personal messengers there remains but one possibility of direct interplanetary or universe communication, and that is through the liaison of the Adjusters of the spheres. No matter what happens on a world or in a universe, the Adjusters are never directly concerned. The isolation of a planet in no way affects the Adjusters and their ability to communicate with any part of the local universe, superuniverse, or the central universe. And this is the reason why contacts with the supreme and the self-acting Adjusters of THE RESERVE CORPS OF DESTINY are so frequently made on quarantined worlds. Recourse is had to such a technique as a means of circumventing the handicaps of planetary isolation. In recent years the archangels’ circuit has functioned on Urantia, but that means of communication is largely limited to the transactions of the archangel corps itself.

109.2.5 4. Has a subject who has been mustered into one of THE RESERVE CORPS OF DESTINY on an evolutionary world of mortal ascension.

110.7.10 During the making and breaking of a contact between the mortal mind of a destiny reservist and the planetary supervisors, sometimes the indwelling Adjuster is so situated that it becomes possible to transmit a message to the mortal partner. Not long since, on Urantia, such a message was transmitted by a self-acting Adjuster to the human associate, a member of THE RESERVE CORPS OF DESTINY. This message was introduced by these words: “And now, without injury or jeopardy to the subject of my solicitous devotion and without intent to overchastise or discourage, for me, make record of this my plea to him.” Then followed a beautifully touching and appealing admonition. Among other things, the Adjuster pleaded “that he more faithfully give me his sincere co-operation, more cheerfully endure the tasks of my emplacement, more faithfully carry out the program of my arrangement, more patiently go through the trials of my selection, more persistently and cheerfully tread the path of my choosing, more humbly receive credit that may accrue as a result of my ceaseless endeavors — thus transmit my admonition to the man of my indwelling. Upon him I bestow the supreme devotion and affection of a divine spirit. And say further to my beloved subject that I will function with wisdom and power until the very end, until the last earth struggle is over; I will be true to my personality trust. And I exhort him to survival, not to disappoint me, not to deprive me of the reward of my patient and intense struggle. On the human will our achievement of personality depends. Circle by circle I have patiently ascended this human mind, and I have testimony that I am meeting the approval of the chief of my kind. Circle by circle I am passing on to judgment. I await with pleasure and without apprehension the roll call of destiny; I am prepared to submit all to the tribunals of the Ancients of Days.”

110.7.10 During the making and breaking of a contact between the mortal mind of a destiny reservist and the planetary supervisors, sometimes the indwelling Adjuster is so situated that it becomes possible to transmit a message to the mortal partner. Not long since, on Urantia, such a message was transmitted by a self-acting Adjuster to the human associate, a member of THE RESERVE CORPS OF DESTINY. This message was introduced by these words: “And now, without injury or jeopardy to the subject of my solicitous devotion and without intent to overchastise or discourage, for me, make record of this my plea to him.” Then followed a beautifully touching and appealing admonition. Among other things, the Adjuster pleaded “that he more faithfully give me his sincere co-operation, more cheerfully endure the tasks of my emplacement, more faithfully carry out the program of my arrangement, more patiently go through the trials of my selection, more persistently and cheerfully tread the path of my choosing, more humbly receive credit that may accrue as a result of my ceaseless endeavors — thus transmit my admonition to the man of my indwelling. Upon him I bestow the supreme devotion and affection of a divine spirit. And say further to my beloved subject that I will function with wisdom and power until the very end, until the last earth struggle is over; I will be true to my personality trust. And I exhort him to survival, not to disappoint me, not to deprive me of the reward of my patient and intense struggle. On the human will our achievement of personality depends. Circle by circle I have patiently ascended this human mind, and I have testimony that I am meeting the approval of the chief of my kind. Circle by circle I am passing on to judgment. I await with pleasure and without apprehension the roll call of destiny; I am prepared to submit all to the tribunals of the Ancients of Days.”

113.2.1 2. THE DESTINY GUARDIANS Seraphim are not known as guardians of destiny until such time as they are assigned to the association of a human soul who has realized one or more of three achievements: has made a supreme decision to become Godlike, has entered the third circle, or has been mustered into one of THE RESERVE CORPS OF DESTINY.

113.2.7 In the ministry of personal guardianship, the assignment of angels as destiny guardians, seraphim always volunteer their services. In the city of this visitation a certain mortal was recently admitted to THE RESERVE CORPS OF DESTINY, and since all such humans are personally attended by guardian angels, more than one hundred qualified seraphim sought the assignment. The planetary director selected twelve of the more experienced individuals and subsequently appointed the seraphim whom they selected as best adapted to guide this human being through his life journey. That is, they selected a certain pair of equally qualified seraphim; one of this seraphic pair will always be on duty.

114.6.20 But aside from these many means of positive action, the master seraphim insure planetary progress against vital jeopardy through the mobilization, training, and maintenance of THE RESERVE CORPS OF DESTINY. The chief function of these reservists is to insure against breakdown of evolutionary progress; they are the provisions which the celestial forces have made against surprise; they are the guarantees against disaster.

114.7.1 7. THE RESERVE CORPS OF DESTINY THE RESERVE CORPS OF DESTINY consists of living men and women who have been admitted to the special service of the superhuman administration of world affairs. This corps is made up of the men and women of each generation who are chosen by the spirit directors of the realm to assist in the conduct of the ministry of mercy and wisdom to the children of time on the evolutionary worlds. It is the general practice in the conduct of the affairs of the ascension plans to begin this liaison utilization of mortal will creatures immediately they are competent and trustworthy to assume such responsibilities. Accordingly, as soon as men and women appear on the stage of temporal action with sufficient mental capacity, adequate moral status, and requisite spirituality, they are quickly assigned to the appropriate celestial group of planetary personalities as human liaisons, mortal assistants.

114.7.3 Mortals of the realm are chosen for service in THE RESERVE CORPS OF DESTINY on the inhabited worlds because of: 1. Special capacity for being secretly rehearsed for numerous possible emergency missions in the conduct of various activities of world affairs. 2. Wholehearted dedication to some special social, economic, political, spiritual, or other cause, coupled with willingness to serve without human recognition and rewards. 3. The possession of a Thought Adjuster of extraordinary versatility and probable pre-Urantia experience in coping with planetary difficulties and contending with impending world emergency situations.

114.7.8 On Urantia THE RESERVE CORPS OF DESTINY, though having no permanent head, does have its own permanent councils which constitute its governing organization. These embrace the judiciary council, the historicity council, the council on political sovereignty, and many others. From time to time, in accordance with the corps organization, titular (mortal) heads of the whole reserve corps have been commissioned by these permanent councils for specific function. The tenure of such reservist chiefs is usually a matter of a few hours’ duration, being limited to the accomplishment of some specific task at hand.

coop - March 22, 2011 05:02 AM (GMT)





coop - March 22, 2011 05:06 AM (GMT)

coop - March 22, 2011 12:32 PM (GMT)

coop - March 26, 2011 12:14 AM (GMT)

Right Now My Heart Is Heavy an Sad , As I Found My
Dog Buddy Dead Monday Morning , and I Miss Him a lot .
He Kept me smileing and laughing .
I loved Him and even liked him better than some people i know .
His loss has taken a piece of my heart and is missing
the wag of his tail .
There IS Big Difference between the Loss Of A Human Loved one
and a Dog , But It Can Be Heartbreaking just the same .
Rest in Peace BUDDY aka Bud . :(
3 / 21 / 2011

coop - March 26, 2011 01:46 AM (GMT)

Spiritualy Blind B)

A Sad story about the past and present very confused Andre , the Blind guy ,
Who started the Cosmic Citizen blog radio of Truthbook , Paulas Friend .
Who Now Did a 190% turn around about the UB .
Sez it from satan etc ... :ph43r:
His Story Clearly shows his complete lack of understanding of the UPapers
and his ignorance and lack of comprehension of
Adam an Eve ...
GODs Wrath ...
And the Atonement Doctrine ... etc ...

coop - March 26, 2011 02:16 PM (GMT)

14:16-18 (Amplified Bible)
16And I will ask the Father, and He will give you another Comforter (Counselor, Helper, Intercessor, Advocate, Strengthener, and Standby), that He may remain with you forever--

17The Spirit of Truth, Whom the world cannot receive (welcome, take to its heart), because it does not see Him or know and recognize Him. But you know and recognize Him, for He lives with you [constantly] {and will be in you.}

18I will not leave you as orphans [comfortless, desolate, bereaved, forlorn, helpless]; I will come [back] to you.

{Dwell in Me, and I will dwell in you.} [Live in Me, and I will live in you.] Just as no branch can bear fruit of itself without abiding in (being vitally united to) the vine, neither can you bear fruit unless you abide in Me.

5I am the Vine; you are the branches. {Whoever lives in Me and I in him} bears much (abundant) fruit. However, apart from Me [cut off from vital union with Me] you can do nothing.

6If a person does not dwell in Me, he is thrown out like a [broken-off] branch, and withers; such branches are gathered up and thrown into the fire, and they are burned.

7If you live in Me [abide vitally united to Me] and My words remain in you and continue to live in your hearts, ask whatever you will, and it shall be done for you.

coop - March 28, 2011 03:05 PM (GMT)
GAL ; 2 ; 20
Galatians 2:20 (New International Version, ©2011)
20 I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me. The life I now live in the body, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.

11 COR . 11 ; 3


coop - March 28, 2011 03:21 PM (GMT)

coop - March 28, 2011 11:35 PM (GMT)

GAL ; 2 ; 20
Galatians 2:20 (New International Version, ©2011)
20 I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me. The life I now live in the body, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.


'' III. "I IN YOU"

"I am the vine, ye are the branches: he that abideth in Me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit." "Abide in Me, and I in you."

We have thought of the tragedy of the fruitless branch, and seen how impossible it is for a branch to produce fruit by any effort of its own. Now the vine and the branches have another lesson to teach us a lesson which only those are prepared to learn who have in some degree mastered the former lessons.

If God expects me to bear fruit in my Christian life, and if I cannot produce that fruit by any effort of my own, how then does He intend that fruit to be produced? We have the answer in this parable. The fruit is produced by the life of the vine in the branch. God intends that the fruit in my life should be produced by the Life of the Lord Jesus living in me. "I live," said the Apostle Paul, "yet not I, but Christ liveth in me" (Gal. 2. 20). "Not I," not by any strength or goodness of my own, no more than there is any life in the branch because of anything the branch has done,-"but Christ liveth in me,"-His life is working in me the things which are pleasing to God, just as the life of the vine works in the branch to bring forth fruit.''


in them" (Jn. 17:23,26). "I in him" (Jn. 6:56; 15:5). According to Jn. 15:1f. He is the vine which produces, bears and nourishes the branches, or according to the even stronger expression in Jn. 6:33 He is the "bread of God which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world." He gives them His flesh and blood, imparting and communicating Himself to them, giving Himself to nourish them, in order that as He lives they also may and will live to all eternity (Jn. 6:53). The same teaching is found in Paul. "Know ye not your own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you? " (2 Cor. 13:5; cf. Rom. 8:10; Col. 1:27). He is the One who has apprehended the apostle (Phil. 3:12), putting His power in him (2 Cor.12:9), setting His truth in him (2 Cor. 11:10), speaking in him (2 Cor. 13:3), and always magnifying and glorifying Himself in his person (Phil. 1:20). And in relation to other Christians He is the One who dwells "in your hearts by faith" (Eph. 3:17), or who seeks to be formed in them (Gal. 4:19). Whether they are Greeks, Jews, Barbarians, Scythians, slaves or freemen, Christ is in them all (Col. 3:11). "Christ in you" is the great mystery of God among the nations (Col. 1:27). In the strongest possible expression (Gal. 2:20), Christ lives in the apostle in such a way that he has to say of himself that he no longer lives, i.e., in himself and apart from the fact that Christ lives in him, but that he now lives in faith in Him who gave Himself for him, this being his own most proper life to which, as one who still lives in the flesh, he can do justice only as he believes in Him. In Col. 3:4, however, "Christ our life" is also said in relation to Christians generally, and again in relation to all those who by the Spirit have been given to know what is given them by God there is made the immeasurable claim: "We have the mind of Christ " (I Cor. 2:12,16), i.e., in virtue of His life in us we have His reason.''

coop - March 29, 2011 12:55 AM (GMT)

"Let us rise up and be thankful, for if we didn't learn a lot today, at least we learned a little, and if we didn't learn a little, at least we didn't get sick, and if we got sick, at least we didn't die; so, let us all be thankful."
-- Buddha

coop - April 2, 2011 02:32 AM (GMT)

Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base Trau, to believe) is a relation which holds (1) between the knower and the known — Logical Truth; (2) between the knower and the outward expression which he gives to his knowledge — Moral Truth; and (3) between the thing itself, as it exists, and the idea of it, as conceived by God — Ontological Truth. In each case this relation is, according to the Scholastic theory, one of correspondence, conformity, or agreement (adoequatio) (St. Thomas, Summa I:21:2).

Ontological truth
Every existing thing is true, in that it is the expression of an idea which exists in the mind of God, and is, as it were, the exemplar according to which the thing has been created or fashioned. Just as human creations — a cathedral, a painting, or an epic — conform to and embody the ideas of architect, artist, or poet, so, only in a more perfect way, God's creatures conform to and embody the ideas of Him who gives them being. (Q. D., De verit., a. 4; Summa 1:16:1.) Things that exist, moreover, are active as well as passive. They tend not only to develop, and so to realize more and more perfectly the idea which they are created to express, but they tend also to reproduce themselves. Reproduction obtains wherever there is interaction between different things, for an effect, in so far as it proceeds from a given cause, must resemble that cause. Now the cause of knowledge in man is — ultimately, at any rate — the thing that is known. By its activities it causes in man an idea that is like to the idea embodied in the thing itself. Hence, things may also be said to be ontologically true in that they are at once the object and the cause of human knowledge. (Cf. IDEALISM; and Summa, I:16:7 and 1:16:8; m 1. periherm., 1. III; Q.D., I, De veritate, a. 4.)

Logical truth
The Scholastic theory
To judge that things are what they are is to judge truly. Every judgment comprises certain ideas which are referred to, or denied of, reality. But it is not these ideas that are the objects of our judgment. They are merely the instruments by means of which we judge. The object about which we judge is reality itself — either concrete existing things, their attributes, and their relations, or else entities the existence of which is merely conceptual or imaginary, as in drama, poetry, or fiction, but in any case entities which are real in the sense that their being is other than our present thought about them. Reality, therefore, is one thing, and the ideas and judgments by means of which we think about reality, another; the one objective, and the other subjective. Yet, diverse as they are, reality is somehow present to, if not present in consciousness when we think, and somehow by means of thought the nature of reality is revealed. This being the case, the only term adequate to describe the relation that exists between thought and reality, when our judgments about the latter are true judgments, would seem to be conformity or correspondence. "Veritas logica est adaequatio intellectus et rei" (Summa, I:21:2). Whenever truth is predicable of a judgment, that judgment corresponds to, or resembles, the reality, the nature or attributes of which it reveals. Every judgment is, however, as we have said, made up of ideas, and may be logically analyzed into a subject and a predicate, which are either united by the copula is, or disjoined by the expression is not. If the judgment be true, therefore, these ideas must also be true, i.e. must correspond with the realities which they signify. As, however, this objective reference or significance of ideas is not recognized or asserted except in the judgment, ideas as such are said to be only "materially" true. It is the judgment alone that is formally true, since in the judgment alone is a reference to reality formally made, and truth as such recognized or claimed.

The negative judgment seems at first sight to form an exception to the general law that truth is correspondence; but this is not really the case. In the affirmative judgment both subject and predicate and the union between them, of whatever kind it may be, are referred to reality; but in the negative judgment subject and predicate are disjoined, not conjoined. In other words, in the negative judgment we deny that the predicate has reality in the particular case to which the subject refers. On the other hand, all such predicates presumably have reality somewhere, otherwise we should not talk about them. Either they are real qualities or real things, or at any rate somebody has conceived them as real. Consequently the negative judgment, if true, may also be said to correspond with reality, since both subject and predicate will be real somewhere, either as existents or as conceptions. What we deny, in fact, in the negative judgment is not the reality of the predicate, but the reality of the conjunction by which subject and predicate are united in the assertion which we implicitly challenge and negate. Subject and predicate may both be real, but if our judgment be true, they will be disjoined, not united in reality.

But what precisely is this reality with which true judgments and true ideas are said to correspond? It is easy enough to understand how ideas can correspond with realities that are themselves conceptual or ideal, but most of the realities that we know are not of this kind. How, then, can ideas and their conjunctions or disjunctions, which are psychical in character, correspond with realities which for the most part are not psychical but material? To solve this problem we must go back to ontological truth which, as we saw, implies the creation of the universe by One Who, in creating it, has expressed therein His own ideas very much as an architect or an author expresses his ideas in the things that he creates except that creation in the latter case supposes already existent material. Our theory of truth supposes that the universe is built according to definite and rational plan, and that everything within the universe expresses or embodies an essential and integral part of that plan. Whence it follows that just as in a building or in a piece of sculpture we see the plan or design that is realized therein, so, in our experience of concrete things, by means of the same intellectual power, we apprehend the ideas which they embody or express. The correspondence therefore, in which truth consists is not a correspondence between ideas and anything material as such, but between ideas as they exist in our mind and function in our acts of cognition, and the idea that reality expresses and embodies — ideas which have their origin and prototype in the mind of God.

With regard to judgments of a more abstract or general type, the working of this view is quite simple. The realities to which abstract concepts refer have no material existence as such. There is no such thing, for instance, as action or reaction in general; nor are there any twos or fours. What we mean when we say that "action and reaction are equal and opposite", or that "two and two make four", is that these laws which in their own proper nature are ideal, are realized or actualized in the material universe in which we live; or, in other words, that the material things we see about us behave in accordance with these laws and through their activities manifest them to our minds.

Perceptual judgments, i.e. the judgments which usually accompany and give expression to acts of perception, differ from the above in that they refer to objects which are immediately present to our senses. The realities in this case, therefore, are concrete existing things. It is, however, rather with the appearance of such things that our judgment is now concerned than with their essential nature or inner constitution. Thus, when we predicate colours, sounds, odours, flavours, hardness or softness, heat or cold of this or that object, we make no statement about the nature of such qualities, still less about the nature of the thing that possesses them. What we assert is

that such and such a thing exists, and
that it has a certain objective quality, which we call green, or loud, or sweet, or hard, or hot, to distinguish it from other qualities — red, or soft, or bitter, or cold — with which it is not identical; while
our statement further implies that the same quality will similarly appear to any normally constituted man, i.e. will affect his senses in the same way that it affects our own.
Accordingly, if in the real world such a condition of things obtains — if, that is to say, the thing in question does exist and has in fact some peculiar and distinctive property whereby it affects my senses in a certain peculiar and distinctive way — my judgment is true.
The truth of perceptual judgments by no means implies an exact correspondence between what is perceived and the images, or sensation — complexes, whereby we perceive; nor does the Scholastic theory necessitate any such view. It is not the image, or sensation-complex, but the idea, that in judgment is referred to reality, and that gives us knowledge of reality. Colour and other qualities of objective things are doubtless perceived by means of sensation of peculiar and distinctive quality or tone, but no one imagines that this presupposes similar sensation in the object perceived. It is by means of the idea of colour and its specific differences that colours are predicated of objects, not by means of sensations Such an idea could not arise, indeed, were it not for the sensations which in perception accompany and condition it; but the idea itself is not a sensation, nor is it of a sensation. Ideas have their origin in sensible experience and are indefinable, so far as immediate experience goes, except by reference to such experience and by differentiation from experiences in which other and different properties of objects are presented Granted, therefore, that differences in what is technically known as the "quality" of sensation correspond to differences in the objective properties of things, the truth of perceptual judgments is assured. No further correspondence is required; for the correspondence which truth postulates is between idea and thing, not between sensation and thing. Sensation conditions knowledge, but as such it is not knowledge. It is, as it were, a connecting link between the idea and the thing. Differences of sensation are determined by the causal activity of things; and from the sensation-complex, or image the idea is derived by an instinctive and quasi-intuitive act of the mind which we call abstraction. Thus the idea which the thing unconsciously expresses finds conscious expression in the act of the knower, and the vast scheme of relations and laws which are de facto embodied in the material universe reproduce themselves in the consciousness of man.

Correspondence between thought and reality, idea and thing, or knower and known, therefore, turns out in all cases to be of the very essence of the truth relation. Whence, say the opponents of our theory, in order to know whether our judgments are true or not, we must compare them with the realities that are known — a comparison that is obviously impossible, since reality can only be known through the instrumentality of the judgment. This objection, which is to be found in almost every non-Scholastic book dealing with the subject, rests upon a grave misapprehension of the real meaning of the Scholastic doctrine. Neither St. Thomas nor any other of the great Scholastics ever asserted that correspondence is the scholastic criterion of truth. To inquire what truth is, is one question; to ask how we know that we have judged truly, quite another. Indeed, the possibility of answering the second is supposed by the mere fact that the first is put. To be able to define truth, we must first possess it and know that we possess it, i.e. must be able to distinguish it from error. We cannot define that which we cannot distinguish and to some extent isolate. The Scholastic theory supposes, therefore, that truth has already been distinguished from error, and proceeds to examine truth with a view to discovering in what precisely it consists. This standpoint is epistemological, not criteriological. When he says that truth is correspondence, he is stating what truth is, not by what sign or mark it can be distinguished from error. By the old Scholastics the question of the criteria of truth was scarcely touched. They discussed the criteria of valid reasoning in their treatises on logic, but for the rest they left the discussion of particular criteria to the methodology of particular sciences. And rightly so, for there is really no criterion of universal application. The distinction of truth and error is at bottom intuitional. We cannot go on making criteria ad infinitum. Somewhere we must come to what is ultimate, either first principles or facts.

This is precisely what the Scholastic theory of truth affirms. In deference to the modern demand for an infallible and universal criterion of truth, not a few Scholastic writers of late have suggested objective evidence. Objective evidence, however, is nothing more than the manifestation of the object itself, directly or indirectly, to the mind, and hence is not strictly a criterion of truth, but its foundation. As Père Geny puts it in his pamphlet discussing "Une nouvelle théorie de la connaissance", to state that evidence is the ultimate criterion of truth is equivalent to stating that knowledge properly so called has no need of a criterion, since it is absurd to suppose a knowledge which does not know what it knows. Once grant, as all must grant who wish to avoid absolute scepticism, that knowledge is possible, and it follows that, properly used, our faculties must be capable of giving us truth. Doubtless, coherence and harmony with facts are pro tanto signs of truth's presence in our minds; but what we need for the most part are not signs of truth, but signs or criteria of error — not tests whereby to discover when our faculties have gone right, but tests whereby to discover when they have gone wrong. Our judgments will be true, i.e. thought will correspond with its object, provided that object itself, and not any other cause, subjective or objective, determines the content of our thought. What we have to do, therefore, is to take care that our assent is determined by the evidence with which we are confronted, and by this alone. With regard to the senses this means that we must look to it that they are in good condition and that the circumstances under which we are exercising them are normal; with regard to the intellect that we must not allow irrelevant considerations to weigh with us, that we must avoid haste, and, as far as possible, get rid of bias, prejudice, and an over-anxious will to believe. If this be done, granted there is sufficient evidence, true judgments will naturally and necessarily result. The purpose of argument and discussion, as of all other processes that lead to knowledge, is precisely that the object under discussion may manifest itself in its various relations, either directly or indirectly, to the mind. And the object as thus manifesting itself is what the Scholastic calls evidence. It is the object, therefore, which in his view is the determining cause of truth. All kinds of processes, both mental and physical, may be necessary to prepare the way for an act of cognition, but in the last resort such an act must be determined as to its content by the causal activity of the object, which makes itself evident by producing in the mind an idea that is like to the idea of which its own existence is the realization.

The Hegelian theory
In the Idealism of Hegel and the Absolutism of the Oxford School (of which Mr. Bradley and Mr. Joachim are the leading representatives) both reality and truth are essentially one, essentially an organic whole. Truth, in fact, is but reality qua thought. It is an intelligent act in which the universe is thought as a whole of infinite parts or differences, all organically inter-related and somehow brought to unity. And because truth is thus organic, each element within it, each partial truth, is so modified by the others through and through that apart from them, and again apart from the whole, it is but a distorted fragment, a mutilated abstraction which in reality is not truth at all. Consequently, since human truth is always partial and fragmentary, there is in strictness no such thing as human truth. For us the truth is ideal, and from it our truths are so far removed that, to convert them into the truth, they would have to undergo a change of which we know neither the measure nor the extent.

The flagrantly sceptical character of this theory is sufficiently obvious, nor is there any attempt on the part of its exponents to deny it. Starting with the assumption that to conceive is "to hold many elements together in a connexion necessitated by their several contents", and that to be conceivable is to be "a significant whole", i.e. a whole, "such that all its constituent elements reciprocally determine one another's being as contributory features in a single concrete meaning", Dr. Joachim boldly identifies the true with the conceivable (Nature of Truth, 66). And since no human intellect can conceive in this full and magnificent sense, he frankly admits that no human truth can be more than approximate, and that to the margin of error which this approximation involves no limits can be assigned. Human truth draws from absolute or ideal truth "whatever being and conservability" it possesses (Green, "Prolegom.", article 77); but it is not, and never can be, identical with absolute truth, nor yet with any part of it, for these parts essentially and intrinsically modify one another. For his definition of human truth, therefore, the Absolutist is forced back upon the Scholastic doctrine of correspondence. Human truth represents or corresponds with absolute truth in proportion as it presents us with this truth as affected by more or less derangement, or in proportion as it would take more or less to convert the one into the other (Bradley, "Appearance and Reality", 363). While, therefore, both theories assign correspondence as the essential characteristic of human truth, there is this fundamental difference between them: For the Scholastic this correspondence, so far as it goes, must be exact; but for the Absolutist it is necessarily imperfect, so imperfect, indeed, that "the ultimate truth" of any given proposition "may quite transform its original meaning" (Appearance and Reality, 364).

To admit that human truth is essentially representative is really to admit that conception is something more than the mere "holding together of many elements in a connexion necessitated by their several contents". But the fallacy of the "coherence theory" does not lie so much in this, nor yet in the identification of the true and the conceivable, as in its assumption that reality, and therefore truth, is organically one. The universe is undoubtedly one, in that its parts are inter-related and inter-dependent; and from this it follows that we cannot know any part completely unless we know the whole; but it does not follow that we cannot know any part at all unless we know the whole. If each part has some sort of being of its own, then it can be known for what it is, whether we know its relations to other parts or not; and similarly some of its relations to other parts can be known without our knowing them all. Nor is the individuality of the parts of the universe destroyed by their inter-dependence; rather it is thereby sustained.

The sole ground which the Hegelian and the Absolutist have for denying these facts is that they will not square with their theory that the universe is organically one. Since, therefore, it is confessedly impossible to explain the nature of this unity or to show how in it the multitudinous differences of the universe are "reconciled", and since, further, this theory is acknowledged to be hopelessly sceptical, it is surely irrational any longer to maintain it.

The Pragmatic theory
Life for the Pragmatist is essentially practical. All human activity is purposive, and its purpose is the control of human experience with a view to its improvement, both in the individual and in the race. Truth is but a means to this end. Ideas, hypotheses, and theories are but instruments which man has "made" in order to better both himself and his environment; and, though specific in type, like all other forms of human activity they exist solely for this end, and are "true" in so far as they fulfil it. Truth is thus a form of value: it is something that works satisfactorily; something that "ministers to human interests, purposes and objects of desire" (Studies in Humanism, 362). There are no axioms or self-evident truths. Until an idea or a judgment has proved itself of value in the manipulation of concrete experience, it is but a postulate or claim to truth. Nor are there any absolute or irreversible truths. A proposition is true so long as it proves itself useful, and no longer. In regard to the essential features of this theory of truth W. James, John Dewey, and A.W. Moore in America, F.C.S. Schiller in England, G. Simmel in Germany, Papini in Italy, and Henri Bergson, Le Roy, and Abel Rey in France are all substantially in agreement. It is, they say, the only theory which takes account of the psychological processes by which truth is made, and the only theory which affords a satisfactory answer to the arguments of the sceptic.

In regard to the first of these claims there can be no doubt that Pragmatism is based upon a study of truth "in the making". But the question at issue is not whether interest, purpose, emotion, and volition do as a matter of fact play a part in the process of cognition. That is not disputed. The question is whether, in judging of the validity of a claim to truth, such considerations ought to have weight. If the aim of all cognitive acts is to know reality as it is, then clearly judgments are true only in so far as they satisfy this demand. But this does not help us in deciding what judgments are true and what are not, for the truth of a judgment must already be known before this demand can be satisfied. Similarly with regard to particular interests and purposes; for though such interests and purposes may prompt us to seek for knowledge, they will not be satisfied until we know truly, or at any rate think we know truly. The satisfaction of our needs, in other words, is posterior to, and already supposes, the possession of true knowledge about whatever we wish to use as a means to the satisfaction of those needs. To act efficiently, we must know what it is we are acting upon and what will be the effects of the action contemplated. The truth of our judgments is verified by their consequences only in those cases where we know that such consequences should ensue if our judgment be true, and then act in order to discover whether in reality they will ensue.

Theoretically, and upon Scholastic principles, since whatever is true is also good, true judgments ought to result in good consequences. But, apart from the fact that the truth of our judgment must in many cases be known before we can act upon them with success, the Pragmatic criterion is too vague and too variable to be of any practical use. "Good consequences", "successful operations on reality", "beneficial interaction with sensible particulars" denote experiences which it is not easy to recognize or to distinguish from other experiences less good, less successful, and less beneficial. If we take personal valuations as our test, these are proverbially unstable; while, if social valuations alone are admissible, where are they to be found, and upon what grounds accepted by the individual? Moreover, when a valuation has been made, how are we to know that it is accurate? For this, it would seem, further valuations will be required, and so on ad infinitum. Distinctively pragmatic criteria of truth are both impractical and unreliable, especially the criterion of felt satisfaction, which seems to be the favourite, for in determining this not only the personal factor, but the mood of the moment and even physical conditions play a considerable part. Consequently upon the second head the claim of the Pragmatist can by no means be allowed. The Pragmatist theory is not a whit less sceptical than the theory of the Absolutist, which it seeks to displace. If truth is relative to purposes and interests, and if these purposes and interests are, as they are admitted to be, one and all tinged by personal idiosyncrasy, then what is true for one man will not be true for another, and what is true now will not be true when a change takes place either in the interest that has engendered it or in the circumstances by which it has been verified.

All this the Pragmatist grants, but replies that such truth is all that man needs and all that he can get. True judgments do not correspond with reality, nor in true judgments do we know reality as it is. The function of cognition, in short, is not to know reality, but to control it. For this reason truth is identified with its consequences — theoretical, if the truth be merely virtual, but in the end practical, particular, concrete. "Truth means successful operations on reality" (Studies in Hum., 118). The truth-relation "consists of intervening parts of the universe which can in every particular case be assigned and catalogued" (Meaning of Truth, 234). "The chain of workings which an opinion sets up is the opinion's truth" (Ibid., 235). Thus, in order to refute the Sceptic, the Pragmatist changes the nature of truth, redefining it as the definitely experienceable success which attends the working of certain ideas and judgments; and in so doing he grants precisely what the Sceptic seeks to prove, namely, that our cognitive faculties are incapable of knowing reality as it is. (See PRAGMATISM.)

The "New" Realist's theory
As it is a first principle with both Absolutist and Pragmatist that reality is changed by the very act in which we know it, so the negation of this thesis is the root principle of "New" Realism. In this the "New" Realist is at one with the Scholastic. Reality does not depend upon experience, nor is it modified by experience as such. The "New" Realist, however, has not as yet adopted the correspondence theory of truth. He regards both knowledge and truth as unique relations which hold immediately between knower and known, and which are as to their nature indefinable. "The difference between subject and object of consciousness is not a difference of quality or substance, but a difference of office or place in a configuration" (Journal of Phil. Psychol. and Scientific Meth., VII, 396). Reality is made up of terms and their relations, and truth is just one of these relations, sui generis, and therefore recognizable only by intuition. This account of truth is undoubtedly simple, but there is at any rate one point which it seems altogether to ignore, viz., the existence of judgments and ideas of which, and not of the mind as such, the truth-relation is predicable. We have not on the one hand objects and on the other bare mind; but on the one hand objects and on the other a mind that by means of the judgment refers its own ideas to objects — ideas which as such, both in regard to their existence and their content, belong to the mind which judges. What then is the relation that holds between these ideas and their objects when our judgments are true, and again when they are false? Surely both logic and criteriology imply that we know something more about such judgments than merely that they are different.

Bertrand Russell, who has given in his adhesion to "The Program and First Platform of Six Realists", drawn up and signed by six American professors in July, 1910, modifies somewhat the naïveté of their theory of truth. "Every judgment", he says (Philos. Essays, 181), "is a relation of a mind to several objects, one of which is a relation. Thus, the judgment, 'Charles I died on the scaffold', denotes several objects or 'objectives' which are related in a certain definite way, and the relation is as real in this case as are the other objectives. The judgment 'Charles I died in his bed', on the other hand, denotes the objects, Charles I, death, and bed, and a certain relation between them, which in this case does not relate the objects as it is supposed to relate them. A judgment therefore, is true, when the relation which is one of the objects relates the other objects, otherwise it is false" (loc. cit.). In this statement of the nature of truth: correspondence between the mind judging and the objects about which we judge is distinctly implied, and it is precisely this correspondence which is set down as the distinguishing mark of true judgments. Russell however, unfortunately seems to be at variance with other members of the New Realist school on this point. G.E. Moore expressly rejects the correspondence theory of truth ("Mind", N. S., VIII, 179 sq.), and Prichard, another English Realist, explicitly states that in knowledge there is nothing between the object and ourselves (Kant's Theory of Knowledge, 21). Nevertheless, it is matter for rejoicing that in regard to the main points at issue — the non-alteration of reality by acts of cognition, the possibility of knowing it in some respects without its being known in all, the growth of knowledge by "accretion", the non-spiritual character of some of the objects of experience, and the necessity of ascertaining empirically and not by a priori methods, the degree of unity which obtains between the various parts of the universe—the "New" Realist and the Scholastic Realist are substantially in agreement.

Moral truth, or veracity
Veracity is the correspondence of the outward expression given to thought with the thought itself. It must not be confused with verbal truth (veritas locutionis), which is the correspondence of the outward or verbal expression with the thing that it is intended to express. The latter supposes on the part of the speaker not only the intention of speaking truly, but also the power so to do, i.e. it supposes (1) true knowledge and (2) a right use of words. Moral truth, on the other hand, exists whenever the speaker expresses what is in his mind even if de facto he be mistaken, provided only that he says what he thinks to be true. This latter condition however, is necessary. Hence a better definition of moral truth would be "the correspondence of the outward expression of thought with the thing as conceived by the speaker". Moral truth, therefore, does not imply true knowledge. But, though a deviation from moral truth would be only materially a lie, and hence not blameworthy, unless the use of words or signs were intentionally incorrect, moral truth does imply a correct use of words or other signs. A lie therefore, is an intentional deviation from moral truth, and is defined as a locutio contra mentem; i.e. it is the outward expression of a thought which is intentionally diverse from the thing as conceived by the speaker. It is important to observe, however, that the expression of the thought, whether by word or by sign, must in all cases be taken in its context; for both in regard to words and to signs, custom and circumstances make a considerable difference with respect to their interpretation. Veracity, or the habit of speaking the truth, is a virtue; and the obligation of practising it arises from a twofold source. First, "since man is a social animal, naturally one man owes to another that without which human society could not go on. But men could not live together if they did not believe one another to be speaking the truth. Hence the virtue of veracity comes to some extent under the head of justice [rationem debiti]" (St. Thomas, Summa Theologiæ II-II.109.3). The second source of the obligation to veracity arises from the fact that speech is clearly of its very nature intended for the communication of knowledge by one to another. It should be used, therefore, for the purpose for which it is naturally intended, and lies should be avoided. For lies are not merely a misuse, but an abuse, of the gift of speech, since, by destroying man's instinctive belief in the veracity of his neighbour, they tend to destroy the efficacy of that gift.

coop - April 28, 2011 02:15 PM (GMT)

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coop - June 20, 2011 02:22 PM (GMT)
Scince my first reading of the once Planetary Prince Caligastia
and his Fall into Darkness and Cosmic Insanity from his Pride
an Love of Himself , His Name and Life Has allways reminded
me of the Deranged Ruler and Tyrant
Of the Roman Madman Caligula .


coop - July 9, 2011 04:25 PM (GMT)

Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology - 2007, 1 (2): 7-17.
©2007 Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology
Original Article
Satoshi Kanazawa
Interdisciplinary Institute of Management
London School of Economics and Political Science
Department of Psychology
University College London
Department of Psychology
Birkbeck College, University of London
I propose a new concept of the evolutionary psychological imagination, t o
replace C. Wright Mills’ half-century-old notion of the sociological imagination,
as a way to link personal experiences with wider social phenomena. To illustrate,
I discuss how one’s difficulty in dating might be connected to the current world
war, and how the evolutionary psychological imagination sometimes allows us t o
see things that few others do.
Keywords: Terrorism, “War on Terror”, 9/11, Madrid bombings, the Savanna
In his 1956 bestseller, the sociologist C. Wright Mills argued that the
sociological imagination allowed its possessor to situate one’s “biography”
within larger “history,” and see an intimate link between an individual’s
“personal troubles” and the society’s “public issues.” In his words, “troubles
occur within the character of the individual and within the range of his immediate
relations with others; they have to do with his self and with those limited areas of
social life of which he is directly and personally aware.” In contrast, “issues have
to do with matters that transcend these local environments of the individual and
the range of his inner life” (Mills, 1956, p. 8). The sociological imagination, Mills
argued, allows one to see how one’s personal troubles (such as being laid off from
work) is intimately connected to larger public issues (such as macroeconomic
trends like recession). The personal trouble is just one instantiation and
exemplification of the larger public issue, and individual biography is part of
larger history.
Mills’ The Sociological Imagination became an instant classic in
sociology, and generation after generation of Soc 101 students have learned of
the concept and read at least an excerpt from the book. It’s a wonderful idea, but
AUTHOR NOTE: Direct all correspondence to: Satoshi Kanazawa,
Interdisciplinary Institute of Management, London School of Economics
and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, United
Kingdom. Email:
Evolutionary Psychological Imagination
Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology – ISSN 1933-5377 – Volume 1(2).
I think we need to update it a bit. It’s been more than half a century since Mills
proposed the idea, and our understanding of human behavior -- our ability t o
explain “personal troubles” -- has advanced significantly since then. In 1956, we
didn’t have evolutionary psychology; in 1956, we didn’t even have inclusive
fitness and kin selection (Hamilton, 1964), let alone parental investment
(Trivers, 1972), the cheater detection module (Cosmides, 1989) (or any other
evolved psychological mechanism), or The Mating Mind (Miller, 2000). Robert
Trivers was in junior high school; neither Leda Cosmides nor Simon Baron-Cohen
had even been born yet. Really, what could we possibly know about human
behavior without evolutionary psychology?
I concur with Mills that our ability to situate our “biography” within
larger “history,” by linking our “personal troubles” to the society’s “public
issues,” is very important. Since all good science is reductionist (Coleman, 1990;
Weinberg, 1992), we should be able to explain “public issues” at the macro level
in terms of “personal troubles” at the micro level, and vice versa. Societal,
macroeconomic, and political phenomena should be explainable in terms of
individual behavior. It is my belief, however, that, because evolutionary
psychology is a far better perspective for understanding human behavior than
sociology ever was or will be, the evolutionary psychological imagination will
allow us to see even more intimate links between our personal troubles and public
issues. Now that we have evolutionary psychology, it’s time that we replaced the
sociological imagination with the evolutionary psychological imagination.1
The evolutionary psychological imagination first allows you to see the
universality of human nature and realize that, to a large extent, people are the
same everywhere. It diverts your attention from the particular, the exceptional,
the individual, and the local, and focuses your attention to the universal and the
common in human experiences. Just like the sociological imagination, the
evolutionary psychological imagination then allows you to connect “biography”
and “history,” and link “personal troubles” with “public issues.” Unlike the
sociological imagination, however, the evolutionary psychological imagination
does so by emphasizing the biological and evolutionary foundations of human
behavior and social phenomena, and the interaction of social and cultural factors
with such biological and evolutionary foundations. Social and cultural factors
impact human behavior only through the evolved human nature. The
evolutionary psychological imagination reminds us that, in the words of
inimitable Laura Betzig, “people are animals” (Betzig, 1997).
Personal Troubles: Why You Are Spending Every Saturday Night Alone
If you are chronically spending every Saturday night alone, despite valiant
and persistent effort to find a date, then chances are there’s something wrong
with you, at least in this area of life. You probably don’t possess the qualities that
members of the opposite sex seek in potential mates. Evolutionary psychological
research has not only discovered what these traits are that men and women seek
in each other, but also that the traits sought after by men and women are
culturally universal; men everywhere in the world seek the same traits in women
(such as youth and physical attractiveness) and women everywhere in the world
1In 1991, Mary Maxwell published an edited book called The Sociobiological Imagination.
Albeit an excellent book in its own right, it was not an attempt to update the sociological
imagination, as Maxwell herself admits on the first page of the book. It is a collection of essays,
written by early pioneers of sociobiology in various fields, and demonstrating how the knowledge
of sociobiology can illuminate traditional social sciences and humanities.
Evolutionary Psychological Imagination
Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology – ISSN 1933-5377 – Volume 1(2).
seek the same traits in men (such as wealth and status) (Buss, 1989). In fact, one
of the themes of evolutionary psychology is that human nature is universal (or
“species-typical”) and people are the same everywhere (or their cultural
differences can be explained by the interaction of universal human nature and the
local conditions) (Cosmides & Tooby, 1992; Kanazawa, 2006). You may be
comforted to know that you are not alone in your plight; there are losers like you
everywhere in the world, and for the same reasons.
The evolutionary psychological imagination, however, also tells you that
your personal troubles are not entirely your own doing; there are larger forces at
work to keep you alone on a Saturday night. For example, if you consistently
find yourself dateless, chances are you are a young man, not a young woman. On
any given Saturday night, more young men than young women find themselves
dateless, even though the sex ratio in society is always roughly 50-50 and there
are about the same number of young men as young women. This is because
humans are naturally polygynous (Alexander et al, 1979; Kanazawa & Still,
1999), and throughout evolutionary history some men have always had multiple
mates. The mathematical consequence of polygyny is most obvious in societies
that sanction and practice (simultaneous) polygynous marriage, such as many
African tribes and Muslim societies in the Middle East. If every married man has
four wives, for example, it means that, given a 50-50 sex ratio, three-quarters of
men are left mateless. A large majority of men in such societies are in the same
situation as you are; they find themselves alone on a Saturday (and every other)
However, as Daly and Wilson (1988, pp. 140-142) point out, “polygyny
is a matter of degree” in human mating systems; every human society is more or
less polygynous, even in an officially monogamous society like the United States.
This is both because some married (or otherwise already-mated) men acquire and
keep additional mates (in the form of mistresses and girlfriends)2 and because men
in such nominally monogamous societies practice serial polygyny, where divorced
men go on to marry younger women in their second and subsequent marriages.
One of the strongest predictors of remarriage after divorce is sex; men often
remarry, women often don’t.
Now if men only practice serial polygyny and do not acquire multiple
mates simultaneously, then it means that there are an equal number of available
women as available men. However, given men’s preference for younger women
and women’s preference for older men (Buss, 1989; Kenrick & Keefe, 1992),
most of the now available women are older women who have been married and
divorced and have had some children, while most of the available men are young
men yet to have their reproductive opportunities (if they are lucky). They do
not make good matches for each other. In polygynous societies (either
simultaneous or serial), most women get their reproductive opportunities and
have children (if followed by a divorce in the case of serial polygyny), while many
men are left out of their reproductive opportunities altogether for life and spend
their entire life mateless. The more polygynous the society, the more young men
face the distinct possibility of ending their lives as complete reproductive losers.
Such is the mathematics of polygyny.
2Although more married men than married women have extramarital affairs (24.5% of married men
versus 15.0% of married women, according to the National Health and Social Life Survey (Laumann
et al., 1994, p. 216, Table 5.15)), some married women do have extramarital affairs and thus acquire
additional mates in the form of lovers and boyfriends. I thank Rosemarie I. Sokol (and Carrie
Bradshaw) for uncovering my blind spot.
Evolutionary Psychological Imagination
Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology – ISSN 1933-5377 – Volume 1(2).
This bleak prospect, created by polygyny, makes men very competitive
and aggressive, because they must compete fiercely with each other not to be left
out of the reproductive game altogether and to win mates. This is why men in
every human society are more violent and aggressive than women (just as males
of most other species are more violent and aggressive than females) (Trivers,
1972). Further, the more polygynous the society, the more aggressive and
violent the men become (Daly & Wilson, 1988; Kanazawa & Still, 2000). This is
why, among other things, your boyfriend is often insufferably rude to the waiter
when you go out to dinner. He is trying to impress you in his misguided attempt
to put down potential competitors and claim higher status than the waiter. If you
are a woman, your “personal troubles” include having to put up with such
immature behavior of your boyfriends and husbands.
Yes, as Mills pointed out, your “personal troubles” are largely the results
of who you are and how you relate to those in your immediate surroundings. But
it does not mean that they are entirely your fault; there are some forces beyond
your control that contribute to your personal troubles, and the evolutionary
psychological imagination can suggest what these forces might be.
Public Issues: World War III
In his 1999 book The Lexus and the Olive Tree, the New York Times
columnist Thomas L. Friedman predicted that the first major war in the 21st
century, after the end of the Cold War which characterized the latter half of the
20th, would not be fought between nations. It would instead be declared by what
Friedman called “super-empowered angry men,” such as, among others, (the then
little-known) Osama bin Laden. Such super-empowered angry men would use the
power of modern technology, like the internet, email, and cell phones, to mount
a successful war against modern states, possibly even a superpower like the United
States. Two years later, his ominous prediction came true. In his September 13,
2001, NYT column, filed from Jerusalem, Friedman once again predicted that the
events in New York and Washington two days earlier signified the start of World
War III. Nearly six years later, we are still in the middle of World War III.
While World War III is commonly called “the War on Terror,” and our
enemies are collectively known as “the terrorists,” they are very different from
traditional terrorist groups, such as the Irish Republican Army, ETA (Basque
Fatherland and Liberty), the Japan Red Army, and other Marxist revolutionaries
throughout history. Terrorists, traditionally, are those who have clear political
goals and are willing to resort to violence and destruction in order to achieve
them. For traditional terrorists, what is most important is the political goals, and
violence and destruction are means to their goals; they are not goals themselves.
If they could achieve the goals without violence and destruction, they’d prefer t o
do so.
For example, while the IRA has assassinated many targeted individuals
(mostly politicians and British soldiers), they do not aim to kill random civilians.
That’s why, when the IRA sets and explodes bombs on commercial targets in
Britain, it usually gives a 45-minute advance warning, enough time for the
occupants of the buildings to evacuate them safely, but not enough time to call in
the bomb squad to locate and defuse the bombs (Coogan, 1995, pp. 513-521).
While the members of Greenpeace and other eco-terrorist groups often endanger
their own lives, they are not known intentionally to endanger the lives of others.
Traditional terrorist groups let the whole world know that they are responsible for
their acts of violence and destruction, and often court media attention, because
such publicity helps spotlight their political goals.
Evolutionary Psychological Imagination
Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology – ISSN 1933-5377 – Volume 1(2).
Our enemies in the current “War on Terror” are very different. They
aim to endanger as many lives as possible, including their own, and they do not
seem to have clearly stated political goals (Atran, 2003, p. 1538; Friedman,
2002, pp. 144-145). They do not give advance warnings of their attacks, and
they do not even publicly claim responsibility for the violence after the fact
(Krueger & Maleckova, 2003, p. 129). (Many of the claims of responsibility on
various web sites are usually false.) As a result, it appears that, for our current
enemies, the murder and destruction is the goal, rather than means to political
goals. That is why, for example, the Palestinians did not stop their suicide
bombings even after Israeli government, under Ehud Barak, conceded virtually
everything the Palestinians demanded. Yasir Arafat did not call off his suicide
bombers even when he achieved his stated political goals, which were the total
withdrawal of Israelis from the West Bank and the control of Jerusalem
(Friedman, 2002, pp. 13-14, 19-20).
Why? Why are our current enemies in World War III so different from
traditional terrorists?
Despite varied geography, cultures, languages, and ethnicities, one factor
which unites all of our otherwise diverse current enemies, from al Qaeda in the
Middle East, to Jemaah Islamiyah in the South East Asia, to the Chechen rebels in
Russia, to the Palestinian suicide bombers in Israel, to the Sunni insurgents in Iraq,
is Islam. According to the Oxford University sociologist Diego Gambetta, editor
of Making Sense of Suicide Missions, a comprehensive history of this topical yet
puzzling phenomenon, while suicide missions are not always religiously motivated,
when religion is involved, it is always Islam (Gambetta, 2005, pp. 259-263).
Why is this? Why is Islam the only religion that motivates its followers
to commit suicide missions? Why is this religion a common factor in our
otherwise diverse enemies in World War III? What (if anything) does it have t o
do with your spending Saturday night alone? The evolutionary psychological
imagination may shed some light on these puzzles.
What distinguishes Islam from other major world religions (Christianity
and Judaism) is that it sanctions polygyny, and, as we saw earlier, polygyny
increases competitive pressure on men, especially young men of low status, who
are most likely to be left without reproductive opportunities when older men of
higher status marry polygynously. Polygyny therefore increases the likelihood
that young men resort to violent means to gain access to mates because they have
little to lose and much to gain by doing so, compared to men who already have
wives. This is why, across all societies, polygyny increases violent crimes, such as
murder and rape, even after controlling for such obvious factors like economic
development, economic inequality, population density, the level of democracy
and world regions (Kanazawa & Still, 2000). So the first unique feature of Islam,
which partially contributes to the prevalence of suicide bombings among its
followers, is polygyny, which makes young men violent everywhere.
However, polygyny by itself, while it increases violence, is not sufficient
to explain suicide bombings. Societies in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean are
much more polygynous than the Muslim nations in the Middle East and Northern
Africa; 18 of the 20 most polygynous nations in the world are in sub-Saharan
Africa and the Caribbean.3 Accordingly, nations in these regions have very high
3Kanazawa and Still (1999) construct a polygyny score for each nation in the world, based on
ethnographic evidence (Levinson, 1991-1995). The score varies from 0 = monogamy is the rule
and is widely practiced, to 3 = polygyny is the rule and is widely practiced. The top 20 most
polygynous nations according to these scores are: 1. Anguilla, 1. Antigua and Barbuda, 1.
Bahamas, 1. Barbados, 1. Equitorial Guinea, 1. Gabon, 1. Haiti, 1. Lesotho, 1. St.
Evolutionary Psychological Imagination
Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology – ISSN 1933-5377 – Volume 1(2).
levels of violence, and sub-Saharan Africa suffers from a long history of
interminable civil wars, but not suicide bombings. So polygyny itself is not their
sufficient cause.
The other key ingredient is the Koran’s promise of 72 virgins waiting in
heaven for any martyr in Islam. This creates a strong motive for any young
Muslim men who are excluded from reproductive opportunities to commit suicide
bombings. Now a vague promise of 72 virgins waiting in heaven may not sound
so appealing if they have even one real mate on earth, which monogamy in the
context of a 50-50 sex ratio mathematically guarantees. However, for young,
low-status Muslim men who are excluded from any mating opportunities because
of polygyny among older, higher-status men, even such a vague promise in the
afterlife begins to be appealing in light of their bleak reproductive prospect on
An important evolutionary psychological principle, which I call the
Savanna Principle (Kanazawa, 2004), is crucial in understanding the effect of the
promise of 72 virgins on young Muslim men’s motivation to commit suicide
bombing. The Savanna Principle states that the human brain has difficulty
comprehending and dealing with entities and situations that did not exist in the
ancestral environment. This difficulty stems from the fact that the human brain,
just like any other body part of any other species, is adapted to and designed for
the conditions of their evolutionary environment, not necessarily the current
environment (Crawford, 1993; Symons, 1990; Tooby & Cosmides, 1990). For
humans, this means that the human brain implicitly assumes that we still live in
the African savanna during the Pleistocene Epoch, roughly 1.6 million to 10,000
years ago.
For example, many Western young men who chronically find themselves
dateless resort to pornography for sexual satisfaction. When men see images of
sexually receptive women, they become aroused. This does not make sense,
because these men should know that they would never actually meet, let alone
copulate with, these sexually receptive women in the movies. So there is no
point in getting an erection when they watch pornography, because the only
biological function of an erection is to allow men to have sexual intercourse with
women. The Savanna Principle tells us, however, that the brain of these men
doesn’t really comprehend that they would never copulate with the sexually
receptive women they see on the screen, because there were no television, videos,
DVDs or the internet in the ancestral environment. All sexually receptive
women that our ancestral men ever saw were real, and they were able to have
sexual intercourse with them. Adapted to the conditions of the ancestral
environment without TV and videos, the brain of young men today cannot really
comprehend that they cannot have sex with the porn stars they see on TV.
Just as the brain of young Western men today is tricked by porn movies,
which did not exist in the ancestral environment, the brain of young Muslim men
today is tricked by the Koran, which also did not exist in the ancestral
environment. Just as the brain of Western men thinks that they can potentially
copulate with the sexually receptive women they see in porn movies, the brain of
Vincent/Grenadines, 1. Swaziland (all of which have the maximum polygyny score of 3.000), 11.
Morocco (2.9700), 12. Liberia (2.9000), 13. Nigeria (2.8175), 14. Congo (former Zaire) (2.8095), 15.
Sierra Leone (2.8000), 16. Chad, 16. Nicaragua (both 2.7500), 18. Niger (2.7250), 19. Togo
(2.6667), and 20. Mozambique (2.6664). Only Morocco and Nicaragua are outside of sub-Saharan
Africa and the Caribbean. Both the United States and the United Kingdom have a polygyny score
of 0.
Evolutionary Psychological Imagination
Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology – ISSN 1933-5377 – Volume 1(2).
Muslim men thinks that they could copulate with the 72 virgins in heaven, if they
die as martyrs. The behavior of chronically mateless men both in the West and
in Muslim nations is partially influenced by their brain’s difficulty in
comprehending evolutionarily novel entities, such as porn movies or the Koran.
If you are a likely reproductive loser in the United States, watching porn is your
way of meeting women and having sex. If you are a likely reproductive loser in a
Muslim society, committing suicide bombing is your ticket.
Social scientists have recently noted that suicide bombers tend to be
slightly more educated and wealthier than the general Muslim population from
which they come (Atran, 2003; Berrebi, 2003; Krueger and Maleckova, 2003), in
seeming contradiction to my suggestion here, because such men should have more
reproductive opportunities on earth than their less educated and poorer
competitors. Closer examination of these studies reveals, however, that they are
not inconsistent with my evolutionary psychological explanation of suicide
For example, a study of 129 Hezbollah shahids (martyrs), only three of
whom were suicide bombers, shows that shahids are significantly more likely t o
have attended secondary school or higher, and significantly less likely to come
from a poor family (Krueger & Maleckova, 2003, pp. 129-135). However, this is
entirely because Hezbollah members are more likely to come from Beirut and
South Lebanon, characterized by higher level of education and less poverty. Once
the geographic origin is controlled, shahids are no more likely (albeit no less
likely either) to come from privileged background.
Another study of Hamas suicide bombers shows that they have higher
economic status and educational attainment than Palestinians in general (Berrebi,
2003). However, the same study shows that Hamas suicide bombers have lower
economic status and educational attainment than other (non-suicidal) Hamas
members. So it appears that Palestinians need higher socioeconomic status and
greater education to join Hamas, possibly because, according to Krueger and
Maleckova (2003, p. 142), Hamas membership is just an extremely violent end of
political activities and more educated people from privileged backgrounds are
more likely to participate in politics in general (although it is a myth in the
United States that more educated individuals are more likely to vote; they are
merely more likely to lie and say they did (Kanazawa, 1998)). However, once
they become members of Hamas, it is the less educated and less privileged ones
who become suicide bombers.
Most importantly, all studies of suicide bombers indicate that they are
significantly younger than not only the Muslim population in general but also
other (non-suicidal) members of their own extreme political organizations like
Hamas and Hezbollah, and nearly all suicide bombers are single (Atran, 2003;
Berrebi, 2003). Because all primate societies, including humans, are
gerontocratic, age is the greatest predictor of men’s social status, and we would
therefore expect the youngest men to have the lowest status and thus the
dimmest prospect for reproductive success in any organization. The detailed
studies of suicide bombers by social scientists are consistent with this prediction
from evolutionary psychology.
The evolutionary psychological imagination suggests that there may be an
intimate connection between your inability to find a date on a Saturday night, and
World War III, the current so-called “War on Terror.” It suggests that Muslim
suicide bombings may have nothing to do with Islam or the Koran (except for two
lines in it, one condoning polygyny, another promising 72 virgins to all martyrs);
they may have nothing to do with religion, politics, culture, race, ethnicity,
language or region. As is everything else from an evolutionary psychological
Evolutionary Psychological Imagination
Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology – ISSN 1933-5377 – Volume 1(2).
perspective, they may have a lot to do with sex, or, in this case, the absence of
The Power of Evolutionary Psychological Imagination
Sometimes the evolutionary psychological imagination allows you to see
things that few others do.
On March 11, 2004, ten bombs exploded nearly simultaneously on four
crowded commuter trains in Madrid, killing 191 people and injuring almost 1,800.
It was the largest act of violence in Europe since the Lockerbie bombing of Pan
Am Flight 103 in 1988. As with the rest of the world, I was intently watching the
news coverage of the event at home on TV.
Within minutes of the explosions, the Spanish government publicly
accused ETA (Basque Fatherland and Liberty) for the terrorist act. And I
immediately said to myself, “No, it ain’t ETA. It’s Muslim suicide bombers.”
(The kabalistic significance of the date -- that March 11 is the calendrical
opposite of September 11 -- had not occurred to me or many others at first.)
Political pundits appeared on BBC and mentioned that it was three days before
the Spanish general election, and ETA committed this terrorist act in an obvious
attempt to influence the electoral outcome. Knowing nothing about the Spanish
national politics, I said to myself, “No, it ain’t ETA. It’s Muslim suicide
bombers.” Terrorist experts appeared on Sky News and said that the blasts had
the characteristic signature of ETA attacks. Knowing nothing about the typical
terrorist methods employed by ETA, I said to myself, “No, it ain’t ETA. It’s
Muslim suicide bombers.” Of course, we now know that it was Muslim suicide
bombers with links to Al Qaeda who committed this massive act of violence.
They were different from typical Muslim suicide bombers, in that they did not die
in the initial blasts, having detonated the bombs remotely via cell phones.
However, they nonetheless blew themselves up in their apartment a few weeks
later as the Spanish police closed in to arrest them.
Armed only with the evolutionary psychological imagination (and
nothing else), it was obvious to me from the start that ETA (or any other
terrorist group) could not have committed this act. ETA, like all terrorist groups,
has a political goal, which is the independence and autonomy of the Basque region
from Spain, and is willing to resort to violence to achieve its goal. Terrorist
groups like ETA say “Give us what we want, or else.” Whoever committed the
Madrid bombings did not say, “Give us what we want,” so their bombings were not
“else.” Bombings themselves were what they wanted. And it is not necessary t o
kill so many people at once to achieve a political goal, before the other side has
had a chance to respond to their initial demand. (The Madrid bombers attempted
to kill many more people than they actually did, by detonating the bombs when
the trains were scheduled to be at a crowded station, but they failed because the
trains were a few minutes behind schedule.) For example, the IRA (another
“traditional” terrorist group) never kills (or even attempts to kill) 191 people at
once, and they even attempt not to kill if they could achieve their goals
otherwise. It is necessary to kill this many people at once only if killing itself is
the goal, not means to a goal, as it is for Muslim suicide bombers.
In this connection, it is instructive to note that the Iraqi insurgents, who
commit suicide bombings on a daily basis, have actually killed more than six times
as many Iraqis as Americans (2,466 American troops vs. 6,004 Iraqi military and
police personnel plus 10,131 civilians, as of January 29, 2007) (O’Hanlon &
Campbell, 2007). It is as if the Iraqi insurgents are trying to eliminate as many of
their intrasexual rivals (fellow Iraqi men) as possible, rather than killing American
Evolutionary Psychological Imagination
Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology – ISSN 1933-5377 – Volume 1(2).
troops (the infidels and occupiers). It turns out, however, that this pattern is very
common. The Yale political scientist Stathis N. Kalyvas points out that
insurgents killed more of their own ethnic groups than European colonizers in
civil wars in Algeria, Angola, and Oman (Kalyvas, 2005, 2006).4 Note that all
three nations are largely Muslim or in sub-Saharan Africa; all are moderately
polygynous. While it is difficult to remember in light of the daily news reports
from Iraq, insurgency has not always been a necessary response to foreign
occupation throughout history. There was absolutely no insurgency against the
Allied occupation after World War II in (entirely monogamous) Germany and
The evolutionary psychological imagination gives you a different
perspective on world events, on “history,” by linking it to our “biography.” I t
allows us to see the universality of human nature, and how our “personal troubles”
are the same everywhere. And many of the “public issues,” not only in our own
society but in every society, are intimately linked to the personal troubles of
people like us. Many of the puzzles, not only about World War III but other
current events, may begin to make sense when we look at the situation with the
aid of the evolutionary psychological imagination. Maybe the Muslim suicide
bombings are not “terrorist” acts, as the term is usually used. Maybe it has
nothing to do with Israel or the American and British troops. Maybe it’s all about
sex, as everything else in life is. Men do everything they do in order to get laid
(Kanazawa, 2003). Maybe young Muslim men are no exceptions.
I thank Diane J. Reyniers and Rosemarie I. Sokol for their comments on earlier
Received February 26, 2007, Revised March 16, 2007, Accepted April 16, 2007
4 Of the Algerian civil war, Kalyvas notes: “What is particularly interesting is that although one
would expect the violence to follow the ethnic divide (native/Muslim versus settler/Christian), it did
not: intra-ethnic violence appears to have been more common than inter-ethnic violence, in a
pattern that appears common to many civil wars that are fought via irregular warfare” (Kalyvas
2005, p. 96). Of the Angolan civil war, he notes: “There were many rumours of Portuguese
atrocities, but the insurgents also proved very brutal, both against white settlers and the native
population. The Angolan case matches the Algerian one in that when violence began it contained a
strong demonstration effect along ethnic lines, but then switched to terrorisation and assumed a
substantial intra-ethnic character” (p. 96). Of the Omani civil war, he notes: “This war differs from
the previous two in that the insurgents were eventually defeated. Violence, however, was plentiful,
featuring both an intra-ethnic and terrorist character” (p. 97).
Evolutionary Psychological Imagination
Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology – ISSN 1933-5377 – Volume 1(2).
Alexander, R. D., Hoogland, J. L., Howard, R. D., Noonan, K. M. & Sherman, P.
W. (1979). Sexual dimorphisms and breeding systems in pinnipeds,
ungulates, primates and humans. In Chagnon, N. A., & Irons, W. (Eds.),
Evolutionary biology and human social behavior: An anthropological
perspective (pp. 402-435). North Scituate: Duxbury Press.
Atran, S. (2003). Genesis of suicide terrorism. Science, 299, 1534-1539.
Berrebi, C. (2003). Evidence about the link between education, poverty and
terrorism among Palestinians. Princeton University Industrial Relations
Sections Working Paper #477.
Betzig, L. (1997). Introduction: People are animals. In Betzig, L. (Ed.), Human
nature: A critical reader (pp. 1-17). New York: Oxford University Press.
Buss, D. M. (1989). Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary
hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12, 1-
Coleman, J. S. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press.
Coogan, T. P. (1995). The I.R.A. (4th ed.). London: HarperCollins.
Cosmides, L. (1989). The logic of social exchange: Has natural selection shaped
how humans reason? Studies with the Wason selection task. Cognition,
31, 187-276.
Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (1992). Cognitive adaptations for social exchange. In J.
H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind:
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New York: Oxford University Press.
Crawford, C. B. (1993). The future of sociobiology: Counting babies or proximate
mechanisms? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 8, 183-186.
Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1988). Homicide. New York: De Gruyter.
Friedman, T. L. (1999). The Lexus and the olive tree: Understanding
globalization. New York: Anchor Books.
Friedman, T. (2002). Longitudes and attitudes: Exploring the world before and
after September 11. London: Penguin.
Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behaviour. Journal of
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(Eds.), Rethinking the nature of war (pp. 88-108). Abington: Frank Cass.
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of Politics, 60, 974-995.
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Kanazawa, S. (2003). Why productivity fades with age: The crime-genius
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desist). Sociological Theory, 18, 434-447.
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Kenrick, D. T. & Keefe, R. C. (1992). Age preferences in mates reflect sex
differences in reproductive strategies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 15,
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there a causal connection? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 17, 119-
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organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago:
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11, 427-444.
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adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments. Ethology and
Sociobiology, 11, 375-424.
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179). Chicago: Aldine.
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coop - August 7, 2011 04:10 PM (GMT)

Might be a good beach book , Maybe ?

Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why
by Bart D. Ehrman

The Bible Delusion
A review by Doug Brown

coop - August 16, 2011 01:20 AM (GMT)

Grateful Dead Live at Fillmore East (Late Show) on 1970-05-15 B)

coop - November 21, 2011 11:21 AM (GMT)
testing pic


coop - November 25, 2011 03:27 PM (GMT)


coop - December 23, 2011 09:50 PM (GMT)

Cross-References Between The Bible And The Urantia Book


Note: References following Bible verses (KJV) provide links to Paper:Section.Paragraph of related material in The Urantia Book.
R = "Refer" — One book quotes from, or refers to an incident contained in the other.

From The UB Bible Paramony

Study Note ref ...

<B>Isaiah 30;20

And though the Lord give you the bread of adversity, and the water of affliction, yet shall not thy teachers be removed into a corner any more, but thine eyes shall see thy teachers:

And thine ears shall hear a word behind thee, saying, This is the way, walk ye in it, when ye turn to the right hand, and when ye turn to the left. </B>

R: 34:7.8; 97:5.2; 117:5.9; 148:6.10

R = '' Refer ''
R: 34:7.8;

<B>P383:1, 34:7.7 Those God-knowing men and women who have been born of the Spirit experience no more conflict with their mortal natures than do the inhabitants of the most normal of worlds, planets which have never been tainted with sin nor touched by rebellion. Faith sons work on intellectual levels and live on spiritual planes far above the conflicts produced by unrestrained or unnatural physical desires. The normal urges of animal beings and the natural appetites and impulses of the physical nature are not in conflict with even the highest spiritual attainment except in the minds of ignorant, mistaught, or unfortunately overconscientious persons.

P383:2, 34:7.8 Having started out on the way of life everlasting, having accepted the assignment and received your orders to advance, do not fear the dangers of human forgetfulness and mortal inconstancy, do not be troubled with doubts of failure or by perplexing confusion, do not falter and question your status and standing, for in every dark hour, at every crossroad in the forward struggle, the Spirit of Truth will always speak, saying, "This is the way."

R=UB 97:5.2

P1066:6, 97:5.2 Isaiah went on to preach the eternal nature of God, his infinite wisdom, his unchanging perfection of reliability. He represented the God of Israel as saying: "Judgment also will I lay to the line and righteousness to the plummet." "The Lord will give you rest from your sorrow and from your fear and from the hard bondage wherein man has been made to serve." "And your ears shall hear a word behind you, saying, `this is the way, walk in it.'" "Behold God is my salvation; I will trust and not be afraid, for the Lord is my strength and my song." "`Come now and let us reason together,' says the Lord, `though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like the crimson, they shall be as wool.'"

R= 117:5.9

P1286:7, 117:5.9 While such spiritual influences as the Holy Spirit and the Spirit of Truth are local universe ministrations, their guidance is not wholly confined to the geographic limitations of a given local creation. As the ascending mortal passes beyond the boundaries of his local universe of origin, he is not entirely deprived of the ministry of the Spirit of Truth which has so constantly taught and guided him through the philosophic mazes of the material and morontial worlds, in every crisis of ascension unfailingly directing the Paradise pilgrim, ever saying: "This is the way." When you leave the domains of the local universe, through the ministry of the spirit of the emerging Supreme Being and through the provisions of superuniverse reflectivity, you will still be guided in your Paradise ascent by the comforting directive spirit of the Paradise bestowal Sons of God.

P1664:2, 148:6.10 "Job was altogether right when he challenged the doctrine that God afflicts children in order to punish their parents. Job was ever ready to admit that God is righteous, but he longed for some soul-satisfying revelation of the personal character of the Eternal. And that is our mission on earth. No more shall suffering mortals be denied the comfort of knowing the love of God and understanding the mercy of the Father in heaven. While the speech of God spoken from the whirlwind was a majestic concept for the day of its utterance, you have already learned that the Father does not thus reveal himself, but rather that he speaks within the human heart as a still, small voice, saying, `This is the way; walk therein.' Do you not comprehend that God dwells within you, that he has become what you are that he may make you what he is!"</B>

coop - December 25, 2011 03:42 PM (GMT)

Ref Note ...

Sol Invictus

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coop - December 27, 2011 03:20 PM (GMT)

coop - December 28, 2011 12:43 PM (GMT)

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